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PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityGUIDETOACADEMICANDSCIENTIFICPUBLICATIONHowToGetYourWritingPublishedinScholarlyJournalsLindaOlsonD.Phil.EnglishandRelatedLiterature CopyrightAllrightsarereserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedstoredinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanswhetherelectronicormechanicalviaphotocopyingorrecordingorotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher.2014 2014GUIDETOACADEMICANDSCIENTIFICPUBLICATIONHowToGetYourWritingPublishedinScholarlyJournalsLindaOlsonD.Phil.EnglishandRelatedLiterature iiABoUttHIsgUIdeWrittenbyanacademicauthoreditorandproofreaderthisGuidetoAcademicandScientificPublicationprovidespracticaladviceonplanningpreparingandsubmittingarticlesforpublicationinscholarlyjournals.WhetheryourelookingforinformationondesigninganacademicorscientificarticleconstructingascholarlyargumenttargetingtherightjournalfollowingjournalguidelineswithprecisionprovidingaccurateandcompletereferenceswritingelegantscholarlyEnglishcommunicatingwithjournaleditorsorrevisingyourpaperinlightofthatcommunicationyoullfindguidancetipsandexamplesinthismanual.FocussingonsoundscholarlypracticesaswellastheexpectationsandrequirementsofacademicandscientificjournalsthisGuideissuitableforuseinawidevarietyofdisciplinesincludingtheSocialPhysicalandBiologicalSciencestheHumanitiesMedicineEngineeringMathematicsEconomicsLawandManagement.AcknowledgementsIwouldliketothankallthescholarsstudentsprofessorsandfellowacademicswhosewritingIvemarkededitedandproofreadovertheyears.WithoutthemandtheirworkIcouldneverhavegainedtheknowledgeandexperiencerequiredtowritethisGuide.IamalsogratefultoRenandJudithfortheirhelpfulcommentswhiletheGuidewasinprogress. iiiPRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItchapr1eiaIrifrasufuAamirsiifiAri11.1ResearchMethodsPracticesandSources21.2EvidenceDiscoveriesResultsandData41.3ArgumentWhatDoesItMeanandWhyIsItImportant71.4MinimumPublishableUnits11chapr2tariaAamirsiifiJurathRihPaprihRihPa132.1ChoosingtheJournalthatFitsandBenefitsYourWork132.1.1RangeandSpecialisationIsIttheRightFit132.1.2JournalImportanceCitationReportsandImpactFactorWillItHavetheRightEffect162.2ShapingYourWorkToFittheJournal18PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkchapr3diphriJuraguiiadiiaeffivPrai223.1TitlesHeadingsandSubheadingsNotJustFancyWords253.2ParagraphsandListsEffectivePresentationandTransition29tABleoFcontents............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality3.2.1StructuredandFullyDevelopedParagraphs................................293.2.2UsingListsEffectively.....................32chapr4JuraguiiaFrmasharyeih344.1BritishversusAmericanEnglish354.2UnderstandingAbbreviations364.3PunctuatingAppropriately414.4FindingYourScholarlyVoice444.4.1VocabularyFormalityPrecisionandVariety454.4.2EnglishVerbsTensingUpandSplittingHairs514.4.3UsingPronounsProfessionallyandClearly54chapr5PridaaasurAurayaeffivy605.1TablesFiguresandOtherResearchDataGuidelinesandGoodPractice605.2LastbutNotLeastReferencesCitationsandQuotations665.2.1In-TextCitationsandQuotationsWhereandHowToAcknowledgeSources685.2.2FootnotesandEndnotesDoYouNeedThem775.2.3ReferenceListsandBibliographiesNigglingDetails815.3AutomaticFormattingToUseorNotToUse86tABleoFcontentsiv................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytABleoFcontentsPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonchapr6FirthiFirearihIraRpfaAairsiifieir906.1CoveringLettersFirstImpressions916.2TitlesAbstractsandKeywordsSoundConnections946.2.1TheVeryBeginningTheTitle946.2.2SummingItAllUpTheAbstract976.2.3SearchingfortheRightTermsTheKeywords1006.3ReadyandWillingSubmissionProcedures102chapr7AfrsubiiApaRjiaRii1067.1JustWhatWereLookingForTheSuccessfulPublishingRelationship1067.2WhenNoMeansNoProfessionalDeparturesandNewBeginnings1087.3WereInterestedbutTheRevisionProcess1107.3.1FormattingStructureandReferencingStyle1127.3.2LanguageandClarity1137.3.3ContentMethodsDataandArgument115.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAppi.........................................................121LetterA.1EarningorConfirmingSeriousReconsiderationorConditionalAcceptance..........122LetterA.2ResubmittingaPaperafterNecessaryRevisionsHaveBeenMade..............124APPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRsviPleasenotethatthisGuidetoAcademicandScientificPublicationalsoincludesanumberofProof-Reading-Services.orgPRSTips.Theseofferadviceonavarietyofpracticalmattersandareenclosedincolouredtextboxesthatmakethemeasytolocate.tABleoFcontents 1PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPartIWhatToPublishandWhereToPublishItcHAPteR1eiaIgrifrasufuAamirsiifiAriPreparinganarticleforpublicationinanacademicorscientificjournalcanfeelratherlikebalancingonatightropeatightropeintricatelywovenofmanyfinelycraftedstrands.Thestrandsmustbesoundandenduringmuchlikethematerialthatgoesintothemakingofagoodpapertheresearchmethodstheoriesexperimentsanalysesandconclusionsthatarewoventogetherintoanacademicorscientificarticle.Thetightropeitselfisratherliketheargumentofthepaper.Vulnerablespotscreatedbyweakmaterialsorpoorweavingcanbringdownboththeropeandtheropewalkermuchasweakevidenceandapoorlyconstructedargumentcanfailtoconvinceoreveninterestareaderandultimatelyproduceaneffectverydifferentfromwhattheauthorhadanticipated.Guidingreaderssuccessfullyalongtheintellectualpathsandscientificdiscoveriesthathaveprovensofascinatingandeminentlypublishableisthegoalofeveryscholarlywriterandnoauthorwantstheattentionofthereadertoslipaway.Noacademicorscientificwriterwantstojeopardisehisorherprofessionalreputationeitherandbalancingonthattightropeisanaptanalogyforthechallengesofproducingtrulyvaluablescholarlyworkattherapidpacedemandedbythepublish-or-perishenvironmentofamoderndigitalworld.PARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 2PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityThereisofcoursenoonefoolproofmethodforproducinganexcellentarticleandeachpaperinvolvesanumberofdecisionsthatonlytheauthorcanmakeaboutthecontentstructureandpresentationnecessarytoreportuniqueresearchinwaysthatareacceptableandeffectivewithinagivenfieldordiscipline.Therearehoweveranumberofconcernsthateveryacademicorscientificwritershouldconsidercarefullywhileplanningandwritingamanuscriptforpublicationandthereareapproachesandtechniquesthattendtobefarmoresuccessfulthanothers.TheseconcernsapproachesandtechniquesarethemattersonwhichthisGuidetoAcademicandScientificPublicationfocuses.1.1RarchmhPracicasurcWhethertheresearchyoureplanningtopublishisbaseduponasingletextorexperimentorisonlyasmallpartofamuchlargerprojectyouwillneedtodecideexactlywhattoincludeandwhattoexcludewhileplanninganddraftingyourpaper.CertainlythisdecisionwillbebasedonthewordlimitssetbythejournalorjournalsinwhichyourehopingtopublishyourworkandsomeauthorsmaywishtochooseajournalatthispointseeChapter2belowanduseitsguidelinestohelpdeterminethecontentstructureandlayoutoftheirwriting.Whileitscertainlyagoodideatotakeacarefullookatnotjustjournalguidelinesbutarticlesalreadypublishedinthejournalsyoumaybeconsideringasyouredesigningyourpaperitsusuallybesttobeginbyfocussingonyourresearch.Choosingthemethodspracticesandsourcesthatwillbesttestorsupportyourtheoriesisessentialandsotooisexplainingthemandthereasonswhytheyareappropriateforyourresearchasclearlyaspossibletoyourreaders.PARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 3PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPerhapsyourstudybeganwithawidereviewofliteratureonyourresearchtopicoranextensivesearchthroughnationalregistersofdemographicinformation.Maybeyouusedtrialsexperimentstestscontrolssurveysgroupdiscussionsinterviewsordirectobservationingatheringyourdata.Perhapsyoufoundyoursourcesonlineorinamedievalmanuscriptlibraryormaybeyouusedonlythespokenwordsofpeopleencounteredrandomlyonthestreet.Whateverthecasemaybethekeyistokeepcarefulandexactrecordsofexactlywhatyouvedoneandbepreparedtoexplainyourapproachespreciselyandinenoughdetailthatyourreaderswillclearlyunderstandyourprocedures.Oftenalackofclearexplanationaboutmethodologyresultsfromthesimplefactthatresearchersbecomesofamiliarwithandimmersedintheirownresearchthatthebasicsseemtooobvioustorequireexplanation.Howeverevenreadersfamiliarwiththeacademicorscientificterritorytraversedinyourscholarlypaperneedtobeinformedaboutyourapproachesandpracticestounderstandthesignificanceofyourworkifyourmethodologydoesntcomeacrossasclearandvalidneitherwillyourresultsoranyargumentyoubaseuponthem.Aclearexplanationofyourmethodologyneednottakeupalargepartofyourpaperusuallyafewcarefullywordedsentenceswilldothetricksometimesafewparagraphsarerequiredbutitachievesagreatdeal.Itprovidesyouwiththeopportunitynotonlytoinformyourreaderaboutexactlywhatyourresearchisandhowyoudoitbutalsotosubstantiateandjustifyyourworkasyououtlineyourreasonsforchoosingtheapproachesandsourcesyouusedyoucanalsoexplaintoyourreaderswhytheyareindeedthemostpenetratingandreliableapproachesavailabletoproduceeffectiveandmeaningfulresultsinyourfieldofstudy.InadditionyoucanclarifyexactlywhatisinnovativeorderivativeaboutyourPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 4PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityworkandwhyandalthoughthisgenerallycomesfarlaterinthepaperthandescriptionsofmethodologyyoucanalsooutlinethelimitationsofyourstudy.Anticipatingpotentialcriticismsofyourmethodologyandtakingspecialcarewhenexplaininganyaspectsthatmayseemweakorineffectivetoyourreadersareoftenextremelyhelpfulwhentryingtodescribeexactlywhatisuniqueandvaluableaboutyourwork.Inmanywaysdecidinguponandexplainingyourmethodspracticesandsourcesissimplyamatterofpositioningyourselfwithinyourfieldofstudyorspecialisationandjustifyingyourownperspectiveasaninformedandthoughtfulone.Ioncehadacreativewritingteacherwhoinsistedthatperspectivewasthemostimportantaspectoffictionwithoutanunderstandingofwhereheorsheiswritingfromhearguednoauthorcanevenbeginandthisisequallytrueofscholarlywritingthoughinsomewhatdifferentways.EstablishingyourperspectiveisanessentialpartofdevelopingyourvoiceasawriterandwhenyourewritingacademicorscientificprosethatvoiceneedstobeprofessionalandauthoritativeseeSection4.4below.Explaininghowsoundthemethodologyyouvedevelopedoradoptedismakesforagreatstartbutscholarlyauthoritymustultimatelybesupportedbysolidandreliableevidenceifyourarticleistobeasuccess.1.2evicdicvriRuadaaTheevidencepresentedinascholarlypaperthediscoveriesresultsanddatathatstemfromtheresearchisinmanywaystheheartofanyarticle.WeretheevidencediscoveredthroughtheapproachesyouadoptednotconvincingorinterestingororiginalorusefultherewouldbelittlepointinwritingapapertosharethatPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 5PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityevidenceandyourmeansofobtainingitwiththescholarlycommunity.Describingeventhemostwonderfulandpromisingofstudiesisnotenoughonitsowntheresearcherneedstodecideexactlywhatheorshehaslearnedwhyandwhataspectsofthatnewknowledgearesignificantandthenmakeboththatknowledgeanditsimportanceclearforreadersofthearticle.Bywritingatalltheacademicorscientificauthorassumesthattheinformationheorshehastosharewillbenewandofbothimmediateandabidinginteresttoothersworkinginthesamefieldandoftenbeyonditandthatthisinformationwillthereforeinfluencethenatureanddirectionoffutureresearchinthearea.Inordertoachievesuchloftygoalstheevidencemustbebothsignificantandsoundanditmustalsobepresentedtoreadersinwaysthatmakeclearexactlywhathasandhasnotbeenshownaswellaswhatthoseresultsmightmean.Itisthejobofeachauthortomakesurethathisorherevidencejustlikehisorhermethodologymeetsthestandardsofacceptabilityandvaliditywithintherelevantfieldofstudy.Thesestandardswilldifferconsiderablybetweendisciplinesofcoursebutclarityiscentraltopresentingevidenceeffectivelynomatterwhatthetopicmaybe.Thiscanbechallengingpresentingdatainwaysthatarebothpreciseandinterestingaswellasgrammaticallycorrectandifatallpossibleeloquentisnoeasytaskasanyonewhohaswrittenmorethanorcomparedwithorinrelationtoforthefourthorfifthtimeinaparagraphiswellaware.Thereisanenormoustemptationtocutcornersbyusingforinstancepronounsinsteadofprecisenounsandwordssuchasformerandlatterinsteadofrepeatingfulldescriptionsofdatainordertoavoidrepetitioninthemaintext.SucheffortsatcondensationcanbesuccessfulandtheycancertainlyresultinunencumberedlanguageiftheyareverycarefullywordedbutwhenitcomestoPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 6PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityreportingresultstheyarerarelyaseffectiveasclearsimplystructuredsentencesthatoutlinewithexactnounsandverbspreciselywhathasbeendiscoveredordeterminedontheuseofpronounsandpreciselanguageseeSections4.4.14.4.3.IfyouareavirtuosoofscholarlyEnglishprosebyallmeansflauntyourstylewhenreportingtheresultsanddiscoveriesofyourresearchaclearandeloquentlywrittenResultssectionisarareandadmirableaccomplishmentinanyacademicorscientificpaperandshoulddefinitelybeagoalforthosewhowishtomakeacareerofwritingscholarlyprose.Dorememberhoweverwhenplanninghowyouwillpresentevidenceinyourpaperthattheskillneededtoachievethissortofeloquenceismostoftenacquiredthroughyearsofpracticeandexperienceandthefirstgoalofanyresearcherattemptingtosharehisorherresultsisclearcommunication.Alongbeautifullyconstructedsentencewithcleverturnsofphrasesandfiveparentheticalclausesmayrollpleasinglyoffthetongueornotbutitmayalsoconfusereaderswhosimplyarentasfamiliarwithyourresultsasyouareparticularlyifprecisedetaileddescriptioniscompromisedforthesakeofstyle.Sothreeshortersentencesforinstancenomatterhowsimplystructuredorseeminglydullmayprovefarmoresuccessfulforfactuallylayingouttheexactnatureofyourevidenceandresultsinawaythatcanbereadilyunderstoodbyyourreaders.Thatevidenceisusuallycomplicatedenoughonitsownsotryingtokeepthewaysinwhichyoureportitassimpleaspossiblecanbemostbeneficialforbothyourpaperandyourreaders.OftentablesgraphsandillustrationscanbeimmenselyhelpfulinpresentingcomplexevidenceclearlyandconciselyinaslittlespaceaspossiblesoitsagoodideatodecidebeforedraftingPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 7PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityyourpaperexactlywhatinformationmightworkwellintablesandfiguresandwhatinformationwillnot.Studydesignsnumericaldatathedetailsofcontrolandinterventiongroupsandanyothermaterialthatcanbeassessedandcomparedataglanceareparticularlyeffectiveintablesandfigurescanprovidenotjustillustrationsofdevicesanddetailsbutalsochartsplotsandgraphsthatpresentevidenceinstrikingvisualforms.Tablesandfiguresareonlyasusefulastheyarewelldesignedhoweversoclarityandaccuracyisrequiredinalltheelementsoftablesandfigurescolumnsrowschartsandgraphsshouldbelaidoutastidilyaspossibletorelateandseparateinformationinamannerthatavoidsconfusion.Anyabbreviationsusedinatableorfigureshouldbedefinedorexplainedinthetableorfigureitselfbecauseeachtableorfigureshouldbecomprehensibleonitsownwithoutthereaderhavingtoreferbacktothetext.Thetitleofatableorthecaptionforafigureshouldalsobeexplanatorythatisitshoulddescribeexactlywhatthetableorfigureshowsincludingbriefclarificationsofanyinformationaboutcategoriesvaluescomparisonsandsoonthatareoutlinedinmoredetailinthepaperitself.SoifyourehopingtousetablesandfigureskeepthesebasicrequirementsinmindasyouworkonyourdesignsandonlyplanonusingtablesandfiguresifyouarefairlycertaintheywillsuccessfullycommunicatetoyourreadersevidencecentraltoyourstudyformoreinformationontablesandfiguresseeSection5.1below.1.3ArguwhadImaawhyIIIpraAlthoughitseemsthatargumentsometimesplayssecondfiddletootheraspectsofscholarlyproseacarefullyconstructedargumentisasessentialtoagoodacademicorscientificarticleasmethodologyandevidenceindeedtheargumentorthesisofaPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 8PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityscholarlypaperencompassesallotheraspectsofapaperandalsoallowstheauthortosharethoughtsasoriginalandengagingastheresearchandresultsfromwhichtheargumenthasgrown.Althoughtheargumentofanygivenpapercanonlybefinallydeterminedaftertheresearchhasbeendoneandtheevidencecollecteditgenerallybeginsastheseedofthatresearchdevelopsslowlyastheworkprogressesandtendstoinfluencethequestionsthatareaskedaswellasthewaysinwhichtheyareanswered.Whatyourstudyanditsresultsmeanandwhythatmeaningisimportantshouldbeconsideredascentralasmethodologyandresultswhenplanningasuccessfulpaper.Ifyouthinkyourresearchworthwritingaboutthenpresumablyyouhaveanumberofthoughtsaboutitthatarealsoworthsharingandwhereverthesethoughtsbeganorhowevertheyvegrownforthepurposesofanacademicorscientificarticletheyneedtobedevelopedintoasustainedlogicalargumentthatbothfocusescloselyontheparticularresearchandprovidesalargerintellectualorscientificcontextinwhichtoconsiderit.Mostscholarswillhaveencounteredthebasicsofacademicandscientificargumentationveryearlyonintheireducationandmostjournalswillrequiresectionsthathighlighttheargumentofapapersoitmayseemredundanttorepeatthosebasicshere.Howeveritcanattimesbenotoriouslytrickytoincorporatethesebasicswhenreportingthecomplexitiesofacademicorscientificresearchsorecallingthemandtheirpurposescanbehelpful.Inbriefabasicscholarlyargumentinvolvesintroducingtheproblemortopicbyprovidingbackgroundcontextcurrentsituationpreviousliteratureandexperimentsandsoon.YouneednotrevieweverypublicationonthetopicorconsidereverycurrentconcernthatwouldbeappropriateforabookorthesisanarticleismorefocussedbutyoushouldsayenoughtoallowyourreadertoPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 9PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityunderstandyourstudyanditsimportanceandtoshowthatyouarewellawareofallthesourcesandapproacheswithwhichyoushouldbefamiliartoconductthestudysuccessfully.NextyoushouldexplainhowyouveapproachedtheproblembydescribingandjustifyingyourmethodologyasdiscussedinSection1.1aboveandthenreporttheevidenceyouvediscoveredthroughthatmethodologyasdiscussedinSection1.2above.Themorecreativepartoftheargumentusuallycomesinthediscussionofthatevidenceandtheconclusionsyoudrawfromithereyoucanbasicallydowhatyouwillwithyourresearchsolongasyoumaintainlogicalargumentationkeepyourconclusionsreasonableinrelationtoyourmethodsandresultsandasalwayscarefullyexplainyourthinkingespeciallywhereitmaydiffersignificantlyfrompreviousscholarshipintheareabecausewhatmayseemobvioustoyousteepedinyourownresearchasyouaremaynotseemobviousatalltoyourreaders.ThisprocessisfarmoreeasilydescribedthandoneofcourseandthereisafinelinebetweenunderwritingandoverwritingwhenworkingtoexplainonesthoughtprocessesanotherexampleofhowacademicandscientificauthorsmustbalanceonthattextualtightropebutthereareanumberofsimplequestionsthatcanbeaskedtofacilitateeffectiveargumentationsuchasHaveIexplainedmythinkingclearlyandthoroughlyenoughforreaderstounderstandIstheterminologyImusingeffectiveandpreciseforexpressingmythoughtsHaveIvaluedmyresearchanditsimplicationsfairlyDoestheevidenceIreportsupportmyconclusionsHaveIconsideredalltheconclusionsthatmightfollowfromtheevidencePARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 10PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityDoImakethelimitationsofthestudyclearIfIuseconjectureorgeneralisationhaveIqualifieditadequatelyforthereaderTheaimoftheseandmanyotherquestionsthatmightbeaskedaboutascholarlyargumentistoachieveahighqualityofboththoughtandcommunication.Ifyouhaventaccuratelyassessedyourworkreflectedatlengthuponitsimplicationsandcometovalidconclusionsthenyouwillfinditextremelydifficulttodeviseacogentandvaluableargumentaboutthatworkandcommunicateittoyourreaders.Evenwhenasoundargumenthasbeenformedintheminditcanbeextremelydifficulttopresentiteffectivelyinprosejugglingtheongoingprogressofanargumentwithcitationsfromearlierstudiesandtheusuallycomplicatedresultsofyourownworkisnevereasyespeciallywhenthewordlimitationssetbymostjournalscomeintoplay.Inmyexperiencethebestpolicyistoplanonwritingwhateverisneededtoexplaineverythingyouwanttosaythoroughlyandtheneditandifneedbeshortenitafteritsbeendrafted.Editingisafterallanecessaryandoft-repeatedaspectofanyaccomplishedpieceofwritingandshorteningyourpaperisbestdoneonceyouhaveaclearideaofwhereyoullbesubmittingitandtherequirementsregardingstructureandlengthwithwhichyoullbeworking.Ideallyyoullalsobeabletobenefitfromthecriticismofacolleagueinyourfieldofstudywhoiswillingtoreadyourworkandofferadvice.Constructivecriticismisusefulnomatterhowfrequentlyanauthorhasproducedandsuccessfullypublishedwritinginthepastbutifyoureagraduatestudentjustbeginningtopublishyourworkitsabsolutelycrucial.MuchcanbelearnedbyreadingpublishedarticlesandeveryscientistoracademicaimstoachievethehighestscholarlystandardsinhisorherwritingbutPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 11PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityintentionsandresultswhatweplantodoopposedtowhatourwritingactuallydoescanasanyresearcherknowsbeverydifferentthingsattimesandthereisnosubstituteforhavingsomeonewhounderstandsexactlywhatyourewritingaboutandknowsexactlywhatsexpectedinyourfieldreadandcommentonyourwork.Youracademicsupervisororadvisoristheidealpersontoprovideguidanceasyouworkatachievingyourfirstpublicationbutanyseniorscholarideallyonewhohassuccessfullypublishedinyourareawillsufficeandfellowstudentscanbeveryhelpfulreadersaswell.1.4miiuPubihabUiThereisincrediblepressureonmodernacademicsandscientiststopublishfrequentlyinordertoreceivepromotionsgrantsandsalaryincreasessothereisalsoanenormoustemptationtocutprojectsstudiesandarticlesupintosmallerunitsinordertosqueezemorepublicationsoutofthesameamountofwork.Therearecertaintypesofpaperwhichmightincomparisonwithafullresearcharticlebeconsideredpartialstudiesastudyprotocolinwhichaprojectissimplydescribedforinstanceandaliteraturereviewwhichaimstooutlinewhathasbeenpublishedonatopictodate.Formostacademicandscientificpapershoweverandcertainlyforthekindoforiginalresearchpaperthattendstoestablishascholarasanauthorityprovidingaminimumpublishableunitisrequired.ByaminimumpublishableunitImeanacompletestudyonethatcontainsandexplainsthethreeelementsoriginalresearchsignificantresultsandameaningfulargumentdiscussedinthisChapter.AshortpapercanrepresentaminimumpublishableunitPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 12PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityforabriefstudyifalloftheseelementsarepresentbutacompletestudydividedintoshortersectionstoachievemorepublicationsdoesnotnecessarilyresultinanumberofpublishableresearchpapersandrepeatingmaterialindifferentstudiestoshoreuptheirdeficienciesisnottheanswereither.Theseapproachestendtoproducepapersthatstandabetterchanceofbeingrejectedthanacceptedbyreputablejournalsandeveniftheyareacceptedtheywillalmostcertainlybeacceptedinjournalsthatarelessthantoptier.SowhileitistemptingtostretchyourresearchoutoverasmanyarticlesaspossibleyourtimewillbemuchbetterspentandyourprofessionalreputationmuchbetterservedbypreparingacompleteandaccomplishedpieceofacademicorscientificwritingthatwillbeappropriateforpublicationasoriginalresearchinahighlyrespectedjournalthatsuitsyourworkperfectlyonwhichseeChapter2below.PARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItPRSTipAlthoughthisGuidefocusesonthepreparationofacademicandscientificarticlesforjournalpublicationthePRSteamishappytoproofreadawidevarietyofdocumentsinEnglish.Wespecialiseinallkindsofscholarlytextsincludingconferencepapersbooksdissertationsandthesesaswellasarticlesbutwerealsodelightedtoproofreadlettersgrantproposalsandteachingmaterials.Whateversortofacademicorscientifictextyourebusycomposingifyoudappreciateasecondsetofcarefulprofessionaleyestohelpperfectyourwritingdosendyourdocumentourway. 13PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitycHAPteR2targigaAamirsiifiJurathRighPaprihRighPaWiththebasicdesignofyourarticleinmindyourtablesandfiguresplannedifnotyetactuallyconstructedandperhapsyourpaperdraftedaswellyouwillneedtochooseajournalthatisappropriateforyourworkbeforemakingfinaldecisionsaboutstructureandpresentation.Eachjournalwillprovidedifferentguidelinesorinstructionsforauthorstofollowsomeofthemverydetailedandspecificothersmuchlesssoallowingauthorsagreatdealmoreflexibilityintermsofhowtheypreparetheirwriting.Occasionallysuchguidelineswillneedtobeconsideredwhenchoosingajournalifyousimplycannotdescribethenatureofyourstudyreportyourresultsandconstructyourargumenteffectivelyinlessthan8000wordsandseventablesajournalthatcallsforpapersnolongerthan4000wordswithnomorethantwotablessimplywillnotdoforthatpaper.Howeverdecisionsaboutwheretosubmityourworkaregenerallydeterminednotbysuchpracticaldetailsbutbyconsideringtheoverallnatureofbothyourworkandthejournalinwhichyoudliketoseethatworkpublished.2.1chighJurahaFiaBfiYurwrk2.1.1RangeandSpecialisationIsIttheRightFitItmayseempainfullyobvioustosaythatwhenyouplantosubmitanacademicorscientificarticleforpublicationyouneedtoselectajournalwithgreatcarebutthefactisthatthedecision-makingprocessistoooftennotgivenenoughtimeandattention.CertainlymostauthorsdotrytosubmitmedicalpaperstomedicaljournalsPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 14PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItliterarypaperstoliteraryjournalsandgeologicalpaperstogeologicaljournalsbutthereshouldbefarmoretothedecisionthanthat.OneliteraryjournalforexamplemayconsiderawiderangeofworldliteratureencompassingfictionandnonfictionproseandpoetryinavarietyoflanguageswhileanotherwillfocusverycloselyononegenreinonelanguagefromasingleperiodMiddleEnglishpoetryforinstanceandstillanothermightonlypublishworkonaparticularauthorWilliamShakespearecomestomindasanauthorwithmorethanonededicatedjournal.Somejournalspridethemselvesonbeingextremelytraditionalwhileothersconsiderthemselvesunorthodoxandavant-gardeintermsofwhattheypublishandsomelimittheirarticlestoparticularthemesorapproachessowhileonemightwelcomeaclosetextualanalysisofanEnglishmeditationonsuicideanotherislookingforatheoreticalstudyofFrenchlovepoetryfromafeministordeconstructionistperspective.Sendingapaperononeofthesetopicstoajournaleditorwhowouldbepleasedtopublishtheotherwillneverleadtopublishingsuccess.Thekeythentochoosingtherightjournalistolearnasmuchaspossibleabouttherangeandspecialisationofthejournalsunderconsideration.ChecktheAboutuspagesontheirwebsitestofindoutwhattheirgoalsandmissionstatementsarescanarchivedissuestodetectprevalentthemesandtopicareasreadpaperstheyvealreadypublishedespeciallyanyarticlesthatsoundasthoughtheydealwiththesametopicasyoursorusesimilarmethodology.Usethesourcesthatserveastheinspirationforyourownworkasaguideifanumberofthemarepublishedinthesamejournalthatsanexcellentjournaltoexplore.Ifyouracademicsupervisorishelpingyouwithcriticaladviceonyourpaperuseadiscussionofhisorherfeedbackasanopportunitytoaskwhichjournalheorshethinksmightbeagoodfitforyourwork.Ifyouhavecolleaguespublishingworkmuchlikeyourownfindoutwhere 15PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIttheyrepublishingandiftheymighthaveanyhelpfuladvice.Ifyouvepublishedyourworkinajournalbeforeyourchancesofbeingpublishedbythesamejournalaregoodcertainlytheeditorwillattendcarefullytoyournewpaperbutthataloneisnotreasonenoughtosendyourworktothatjournal.Onlyifyournewarticlesuitsthejournalspublishingagendaaswellastheonealreadypublishedinitdidorifyouvebeenluckyenoughtoreceiveanopeninvitationtosubmitfutureworkshouldyousubmittothesamejournal.Asmuchcareshouldbetakenoveragoodpublishingrelationshipasoveragoodacademicorscientificpaperandagoodpublishingrelationshipisfosteredbysendingtopqualityworkthatfits.Itcansometimesbehelpfultocontactajournalbeforedecidingtosubmityourpaper.Notalljournalswillwelcomesuchquerieshoweversoiftheguidelinessuggestthatthisisnotwantedthatisthatonlyfullsubmissionsarerequesteddontpursuethisapproach.IfontheotherhandthejournalinvitesqueriesinadvanceofsubmissionoritseemsthataquerylettermightbeaneffectivemeansoffirstcontactwithajournalthatsimplydoesnthavethespacetoincludeallthepublishablepapersitreceivesitcanbeusefultosendamessageoutliningthepointofyourstudyandincludingasummaryofyourpaperanearlydraftoftheabstractwouldservethispurposewellbutbesuretopolishandperfectitbeforesendingitalongseeSection6.2.2.Ifyoulearnfromyourquerythatthetopicormethodologyofyourpaperwouldmakeitalowpriorityforthejournalitdoesntmeanthatyoushouldabandonyoureffortstopublishyourpaperinthatjournalifthatisyourpreferencebutyouwillhaveabetterunderstandingofthechallengesyoufaceandcanthendecidewhetheryoushouldcontinueyoureffortstopublishinthatjournalorspendyourtimeseekinganappropriatejournalwithwhichyoustandabetterchanceofsuccess. 16PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt2.1.2JournalImportanceCitationReportsandImpactFactorWillItHavetheRightEffectAlongwithrangeandspecialisationtheimportanceofajournalshouldbeconsideredasyouredecidingwheretosubmityourwork.Inalldisciplineswordofmouthandexperienceasareaderisyourfirstguidetotheimportanceorauthorityofanacademicorscientificjournal.Everyfieldofstudyhasafewjournalsthatriseabovetherestthesortofjournalsinwhichthemostsignificantandinnovativeworkbyleadingacademicsorscientistsinthefieldispublished.Succeedingathavingworkpublishedinsuchajournalcanearnscholarlyrespectmakeaprofessionalreputationandgoalongwaytowardestablishingahealthycareer.Thesejournalsarewellknowntoeveryoneassociatedwithadisciplineandwidelyreadsoitiseasyenoughtoidentifythemanddiscoverthekindofworktheypublish.Itismoredifficulthowevertodecidewhetheryourworkisappropriateforsuchajournaliffornootherreasonthanbecausesuchajudgementinvolvesaccurateself-assessmentsotheadviceofcolleaguesandmentorsrecruitedascriticalreaderswillbeparticularlyhelpfulforthisreasonaswell.Ifyouundervalueyourworkbynotsubmittingtosuchjournalsyoullneverbepublishedinthembutifyouovervalueyourworkbysubmittingitwhenitsnotappropriateyourworkwillalmostcertainlyberejectedsoagainyouneedtosubmityourworktooneofthesehighlyrespectedjournalsonlyifitfitsthejournalspublishingagendainbothcontentandsignificancenotsimplybecauseyoudreallyliketobepublishedinit.Justbecauseanygivenpieceofworkisntappropriateforsuchtop-tierjournalsdoesntmeanthatitshouldntbepublishedhoweveranditcanbemuchmorepracticalespeciallyasyoureworkingtofindyourauthorialvoiceearlyinyourcareertochooseanappropriatereputablejournalforwhosepagesthereisntquiteas 17PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItmuchcompetition.Itsalwaysbesttochoosearefereedorpeer-reviewedjournalbecausethismeansthattheresearcharticlespublishedbythatjournalhavebeenevaluatedbyscholarsandresearcherswhospecialiseinthesubjectarea.Thisprocesstendstoeliminatearticleswithflawsincontentandjournalsthatuseittendtoearnacademicandscientificrespectandinfluence.UlrichsPeriodicalDirectoryonlineaccesstowhichcanbegainedthroughmostuniversitylibrariescanbeusedtodetermineifajournalispeer-reviewedandJournalCitationReportsalsoavailablethroughmostuniversitylibrariesprovidesawayofevaluatingtheresearchinfluenceandimpactofmorethan10000scienceandsocialsciencesjournals.Inthesecondofthesepublicationscitationsofresearcharticlesarerecordedandthenumberoftimesthearticlespublishedbyeachjournalhavebeencitedoverthecourseofayearisdeterminedtoconstructaninclusivejournalcitationnetwork.Citationsofthearticlespublishedbyajournalareaveragedtoprovideanimpactfactorforthejournalovereitheratwo-yearorfive-yearperiodaswellasanimmediacyindexwhichindicatesthenumberoftimesarticlespublishedbythejournalinagivenyearhavebeencitedinthatsameyear.Citationreportsandimpactfactorscanbeextremelyhelpfulwhenchoosinganinfluentialandrespectedjournalthatwilleffectivelymakeyourworkaccessibletoalargenumberofthereadersforwhomyourewritingbuttheyshouldbeusedwithcaution.Citationratesinthefirstyearsafterpublicationvaryfromdisciplinetodisciplineandevenwithinadisciplineonearticlecanbecitedahundredtimesmoreoftenthanthenextarticletherebygreatlyimprovingtheimpactfactorofajournalthatnonethelesstendstopublisharticlesthatarerarelycited.Therearealsoanumberofwaysinwhichjournalscandeliberatelyskewthecitationdatabyincludingforinstanceasmallernumberofarticlesthatareunlikelytobecited 18PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItnomatterhowpublishableandvaluabletheymaybeandalargernumberofreviewarticleswhichtendtobecitedmoreoftenthanresearchreports.Somejournalsevenuseapolicyofcoercivecitationapracticeinwhichajournaleditorforcesanauthortoaddspuriouscitationsofarticlespublishedbythejournalandthusincreasethejournalsimpactfactorbeforeagreeingtopublishhisorherpaper.Suchunethicalpracticessuggestthatcompetitionfortopratingsamongacademicandscientificjournalsisasfierceasthatforpublicationinthemamongacademicauthorsbutthebestwayinwhichjournalscantrulyimprovetheirratingsandacademicsandscientistscanhaveasignificantimpactthroughtheirwritingisbymaintainingaclosefocusonscholarshipthatisashonestasitisaccomplished.2.2shapigYurwrktFihJuraProducinghonestandaccomplishedscholarshipdoesnotmeanthatyoucantstackthedeckinyourfavourhoweverwhensubmittingyourwritingtothejournalyouvechosen.Infactyoushoulduseeverythingyoucanlearnaboutthejournaltoyouradvantageandoneoftheclassicwaysofmakingyourpaperagoodfitforajournalistoreadandcitearticlesalreadypublishedinthatjournal.Ifyouvedoneyourresearchbyreadingarticlespublishedinthejournalthataresimilartoyourowninordertochoosethejournalinthefirstplacethiswillproveeasyandanaturalprogressionofyourscholarshipthatreallydoesmakeyourworkcompatiblewithotherpapersinthejournal.Thewayinwhichyouintroduceyourworktothejournalseditorisvitalaswell.Youneedtounderstandwhatthejournalislookingforandthenexplaintotheeditorexactlywhyyourpaperfitsthebill. 19PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHItThisdoesnotmeancompromisingyourmethodologyevidenceorargumentbutthesamepapercanlookverydifferentwhenaddressedtodifferentaudiences.Yourcoveringletterisusuallynotalwaysthefirstdocumentthejournalseditorwillreadandmuchcanbeaccomplishedinacoupleofparagraphs.Taketheopportunitytodescribeyourpaperinwaysthatappealtothejournalsconcernsifyouvecometoinnovativeconclusionsafterareviewofrelevantliteratureandthejournalyouresubmittingtopridesitselfonpublishingtraditionalscholarshipjustthesortofjournalbythewayinwhichsuchconclusionsmighthavemaximumeffectemphasiseinyourletterhowyourresearchisbaseduponacarefulreviewofthescholarlytradition.IfyourpapercomparessurgicaltreatmentsofanailmentwithnonsurgicaltreatmentsandthejournalyouthinkthebestfitforitfocusesonsurgeryhighlightthesurgicalaspectofyourworkinyourcoveringletterwhethertheresultsyoupresentfavoursurgicalmethodsornotformoreadviceonwritingacoveringlettertoaccompanyyoursubmissionseeSection6.1ofthisGuide.Youcanalsoincreaseyourchancesofpublishingsuccessbyusingspecialisedterminologywithprecisionandextremecare.Onlyusesuchspecialisedterminologyifitisentirelyappropriatetoyourtopicanddonotoveruseit.IfthespecialisedtermsyouuseareassociatedwiththejournalsareaofspecialisationyoucanusethemfairlyfreelywiththeassumptionthatyourreaderswillunderstandthemwhichdoesntmeanbythewaythatyoucanavoidusingterminologypreciselyordefiningabbreviationsseeespeciallySections4.24.4.1butanyterminologyyouusewhetherinthepaperoranyaccompanyingdocumentsthatmaynotbefamiliartothosereadersortotheeditororreviewersofthejournalshouldbecarefullyexplained. 20PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityYourtitleisessentialaswellandshouldideallybewordedtoprioritisethejournalsprimaryconcernsaswellasyourownandyourabstractcansimilarlyhighlightthejournalsfocuseswhileclearlyoutliningthenatureofyourworkanditsimportance.WritingsucheffectivetitlesandabstractsisnoeasytaskofcoursebutmanyaneditornevermakesitpasttheabstractofpapersthatarequicklyrejectedanditsessentialtoprovideanabstractforyourpaperthatmakesajournaleditoraswellasitsreviewersandreadersrespectyourscholarshipunderstanditsimportanceandseeitasentirelyappropriateforthatpublicationforadviceonwritingacademicandscientifictitlesandabstractsseeSection6.2.ItgoeswithoutsayingthattitleabstractandallotheraspectsofthepapershouldconformineverywaypossibletotheauthorguidelinesprovidedbythejournalthoughtobehonestitseemsthiscanneverbesaidenoughandmuchofChapter3ofthisGuideisdedicatedtothetopic.SubmissionproceduresshouldalsobenotedandfollowedpreciselyseeSection6.3belowandthelanguageinwhichyouwriteyourpapershouldbeclearcorrectprofessionalandifpossibleeloquentseeespeciallyChapter4.Finallyyourpaperitselfandalladditionalfilesyousubmitalongwithitshouldbecarefullyproofreadandpolishedtothehighesttextualshineyoucanmanage.Asyouprepareyourpaperconsidertheeditorsperspectiveasmuchasyoucananticipateit.ThiswillhelpyouearnpositiveattentionfromarespectedandinfluentialjournalanditswellworthworkingtomeettherequirementsofsuchajournalbecauseonetrulyvaluablescholarlyarticlepublishedinahighlyratedacademicorscientificjournalisworthfarmoreandlooksfarbetteronyourCVthantwoorthreeadequatepaperspublishedinsecond-orthird-ratejournals.PARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt PRSTipSomejournalswilldedicateaparticularissueorvolumetoaspecificthemeandsolicitarticlesthatfitundertherubricofthattheme.Insuchsituationsyoushouldonlysubmityourpaperforconsiderationinthatissueorvolumeifyourpaperclearlydealswiththethemespecifiedandyoushouldalsoexplaininyourcoveringletterwhyandhowyourpaperaddressesthattheme.Althoughitisgenerallyawasteoftimetosubmitanarticlethatisofftopicinsuchcasessubmissionsthatshareatopicorapproachcanresultinathematictrendinanygivenissueorvolumeofajournalandmanyjournalswillwelcomecohesivecontentofthissort.Soifyouhavecolleaguesorfellowstudentsinvolvedinresearchsimilartoyourownwhoarealsopreparingpapersforpublicationitcanbeagoodstrategytosubmityourpaperstothesamejournalaroundthesametime.Itwontguaranteeacceptanceofcoursebutifajournalreceivesmorethanonepaperonthesameorasimilartopictheconnectionsmayinspireatheme-orientedissueinwhichpapersonthatthemewillstandasomewhatbetterchanceofachievingpublication.Itsanotherwaytostackthedeckinyourfavourasyousubmityourpaper.21PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIwHAttoPUBlIsHAndwHeRetoPUBlIsHIt 22PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkPartIIPreparingPresentingandPolishingYourWorkcHAPteR3diphriJuraguiiadiiaeffivPraiParadoxicallysuccessfullyfollowingtheauthorguidelinesorinstructionsprovidedbyacademicandscientificjournalsusuallyontheirwebsitescanbeboththesimplestandmostcomplicatedaspectofpreparingascholarlypaperforpublication.IfyourfirstlanguageisnotEnglishandyouredealingwithauthorinstructionswritteninEnglishfollowingtheguidelinesbecomesevenmorecomplicatedbecauseexactlywhatismeantcansometimesbetrickytodecipherevenfornativeEnglishspeakers.Therequirementsdifferfromjournaltojournalsometimesslightlyandatothersenormouslyandsomejournalsprovideextremelydetailedinstructionsaboutalmosteverypartorfeatureofapaperwhileothersarefarmoregeneralandleavemuchaboutpresentationuptotheauthor.Nomatterhowsmallorinsignificantadetailrequestedbyajournalmayseemhoweveritshouldbetreatedwithgreatimportance.Ifforinstanceajournalsguidelinescallfora10-pointTimesNewRomanfontwith1.3linespacingbut1.8beforeheadingswhichshouldbeina12-pointfontdontquestionitsimplyadjusttheformatofyourpapertoconformtotherequirements.Thejournalwouldnothavegivensuchdetailedinstructionsifthisformatwerentimportantanditsmucheasiertocomplythantohaveyourpaperrejectedsimplybecauseyouthinksuchdetailsunimportantorevenbecauseyouhaveabetterreason 23PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRksuchasconsideringa10-pointfonttoosmallforreadersorpreferringdoublespacingforclarity.Journalguidelinescanalsobehelpfulinwaysnotnecessarilyintendedbythejournal.Forexampleiftheguidelinesusee-mailwithahyphenratherthanwithoutonethehyphenatedformisalmostcertainlythebestonetouseinyourpaper.Dobecarefulhoweverbecausejournalguidelinescanbeasinconsistentasothertextsonlinee-mailmaybeusedinoneparagraphandemailinthenextsokeepyoureyesopentosuchinconsistencieswhichcanalsocropupinthespecificinstructionsofferedtoauthors.Youmighthavejustdeterminedforinstancefromthedescriptionofreferencingformatsprovidedinasetofguidelinesthatyoudefinitelyneedafullstopaftereachdateinareferencelistonlytodiscoverthattheverynextexampleprovidedbythejournaldoesnotuseone.Insuchcasesyoucanalwaysconsultarticlesalreadypublishedbythejournaltoseehowtheirauthorsdealtsuccessfullywithsuchconfusinginstructionsbutintheendadecisionaboutwhichformatwillbebestinyourownpaperwillneedtobemadeandwhetheryouchoosetousethatfullstopornotitsessentialtobeconsistentandusethesameformatthroughoutyourpaper.Indeedaswithsomanyotheraspectsofpreparingacademicorscientificwritingforpublicationacombinationofaccuracyandconsistencyisthenameofthegamewhenfollowingjournalguidelines.Manyscholarsconsidermattersofpresentationandformattingsecondarytotheresearchresultsandargumentofapaperandinliteraltermsthisistruewithoutthecontentofapaperthereisnothingtoformatorpresent.Whethertheformatofanarticleisconsideredaprioritybyacademicsandscientistsornothowevereffectiveformattingcangreatlyincreasetheclarityof 24PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityapaperanditismostcertainlyapriorityfortheeditorsofjournalswereitnottherewouldbenopointinprovidinginstructionsforauthors.Formattingisthemostvisibleaspectofapaperandcanbecheckedataglancewhichmeansthatitisoftenusedbyeditorsasameasureofmanyotherelementsofapaperthattakemuchmoretimetoidentifyandjudge.Byignoringauthorguidelinesandpresentingyourworkinaninappropriateincorrectorinconsistentformatyouprovideanoverworkededitorinundatedwithstacksofsubmissionstheopportunitytoclearonemorepieceofworkoffhisorherdeskoftenwithoutevenreadingyourabstract.Theassumptionthatthereisacorrelationbetweenthequalityofscholarshipinapaperandthequalityofitspresentationisnotalwayscorrectgoodscholarshipcanbehiddeninpoorlypreparedpapersafterallandbeautifullypresentedworkcancontainpoorscholarshipbutthereisnonethelesstruthintheideathatanauthorwhocanaccuratelyandconsistentlyfollowinstructionsandformathisorherpaperjustasthejournalwouldhaveitisalsoanacademicorscientistwhoreadsandreferstosourcesandreportsmethodsandresultsinaccurateandmeaningfulways.Exactitudeandprecisionareafterallnotjustrequiredbyjournalsbutalsoelementsofqualityscholarshipandthereisnodoubtthatmanyeditorsthinkaboutguidelinesandscholarshipinpreciselythesewaysawell-organisedpaperheraldsawell-organisedmind.Suchcomplianceonthepartofauthorsalsoindicatestoaneditortheirwillingnesstobeaccommodatingandworkeffectivelywiththejournaltoachievesuccessfulpublication.Sotheprimarymessagehereistomakeyourpaperlookasgoodtothejournalyouvechosenforsubmissionasyoubelievetheworkthatwentintothepaperisyouveputlotoftimeandeffortintowritingyourarticlesoitcertainlydeservesthechancetoshine.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 25PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality3.1tiHaiasubhainJuFacywrAlthoughjournalsdifferintheamountofdetailtheyprovideaboutthekindoftitlesheadingsandsubheadingstheywantauthorstousemostjournalsoffersomeinstructionsonhowtoformattheseelementsandsinceheadingsingeneralareprobablythesinglemostimmediatelyvisibleaspectofyourpaperfollowingthoseinstructionstotheletterisvital.Ifajournalsguidelinesaskthatthetitlecontainnomorethan80charactersusecapitalsforthefirstletterofboththetitleandthesubtitleandincludenoabbreviationsthenyourtitleshouldobservealloftheserequirements.Iftheguidelinesindicatethattheabstractshouldbedividedintosectionsusingparticularheadingsinitalicfontwitheachfollowedbyacolonalsoinitalicfontthenyoushouldformatyourabstractinpreciselythisway.Iftheguidelinesinsistthatallfirst-levelheadingsshouldappearin14-pointboldfontandsportcapitalsoneverymainwordallsecond-levelheadingsshouldappearin12-pointitalicswithonlythefirstletteruppercaseandallthird-levelheadingsshouldbeinboldfontandtuckedintothebeginningofparagraphsasashortsentenceandfollowedbyafullstopalsoinboldthenyourheadingsshouldusetheseformatsconsistentlyandaccurately.InmanycasestheheadingsthemselvesespeciallyforthefirstlevelwillbespecifiedinthejournalguidelinesaswellBackgroundMethodologyResultsDiscussionandConclusionsforinstance.Ifthisisthecasewiththejournaltowhichyouresubmittingyourpaperyoushoulddoyourverybesttousetheseheadings.IfabsolutelynecessaryyoucanaddacolonandbriefsubtitletodesignatedheadingsBackgroundPreviousTrialsandLiteratureforexampleorMethodologyParticipantsandQuestionnairesbuttheseextrawordscaninsteadbecomesubheadingsorsecond-levelPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 26PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityheadingswithParticipantsandQuestionnairesforinstanceassubsectionswithinthemainmhysectionofyourpaper.Thelatterwouldbethesaferrouteinmostcasesandsinceveryfewjournalsrequireparticularwordingforheadingsbeneathfirst-levelheadingstherewillgenerallybemoreflexibilityinchoosingyoursecond-levelandsubsequentheadings.Itwillcomeasagreatrelieftosomeauthorsthatmanyjournalsdonotgivesuchdetailedinstructionsabouttheformatorwordingofheadingsmanyforexamplewillsimplylimitauthorstousingthreelevelsofheadingbeyondthetitle.Thismeansthatyouhavetheopportunitytodeviseacreativeheadingforeachsectionthataccuratelyreflectsthecontentofthesectionitintroducesandtoformatthethreelevelsofheadingsasyouwishbutitdoesntmeanthattheheadingscanbelaidoutorformattedinacarelessorinconsistentmanner.Ifforinstanceyousimplytypeallyourheadingsinusingtheexactsamefontandformatthenyourreaderincludingthatall-importanteditoratthejournalwillnotbeabletodistinguishasecond-levelheadingfromafirst-levelorthird-levelone.Sothefreedomtoformatyourheadingsasyoulikeisanopportunitytoflauntyourcreativeformattingskillsuseboldfontforthefirstlevelitalicsforthesecondandregularfontforthethirdorperhapslargerboldfontforthefirstlevelasmallerfontinboldforthesecondandthesmallerfontinitalicsforthethird.Thepossibilitiesarevirtuallyendlessbutbesurethatthesystemyoudesignworkseffectivelytodistinguishallthesectionsofyourpaperandonceyouvedecidedontheformatandlevelsyoullbeusingbeconsistentandsticktoyoursystem.Authorsaregenerallysosteepedintheirownworkthatitsdifficulttobefullyawareoftheconfusionthatcanresultwhenheadingsareusedininconsistentways.CertainlyheadingsarefancywordsandmakeyourpapermorevisuallyattractivebuttheyarealsoessentialPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 27PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytotheclarityofyourargumentandalltheinformationcontainedwithinit.IfforinstanceinthesecondoftheexamplesIveprovidedintheprecedingparagraphfirstlevellargeboldsecondlevelsmallboldandthirdlevelsmallitalicsthereadercomesacrosstwoheadingsinarowinsmallboldfontwithoutanytextbetweenthemwhatisheorshetomakeofthestructureofthepaperArethetwoheadingsequivalentandifsoistheretextmissingbetweenthemShouldtheanomalybereadinsomeotherwayorhastheauthorsimplyneglectedtoformattheseheadingsappropriatelyAdifferentkindofconfusionarisesifthereadercomesacrossaheadinginlargeitalicsorregularfontneitherofwhichfitintothesystemtheauthorhasestablishedwiththefirstfewheadings.IsafourthlevelofheadingintendedoristheformatsimplyanerrorforoneofthethreelevelsalreadyusedSuchinconsistenciesnotonlyintroduceglaringerrorsofthekindthateditorsareseekingtheyforcethereadertoconjectureaboutthestructureofthepaperandcanalsobemisleadingandevenpromotemisinterpretationoftheworkyouresubmitting.Sobecreativewithyourheadingswhileyourefollowingjournalguidelinesworktolayyourpaperoutinanattractivewaythatclarifiestheprogressorstagesofyourargumentanddontbeafraidtousespaceaswellasdifferentfontstodistinguishheadinglevels.Alargeheadinginboldfontseemstodemandasomewhatlargerspaceaboveitthandoesasmallheadinginitalicsandsucheffectivespacingcanrenderthestructureofyourpaperevenmoresuccessfulforyourreaders.AsanarthistorianfriendofmineoncesaidwhenlookingovermyCVformetrytoleavealittlemorespaceonthepage.Shesawthatspaceasavitalcomponentofthedocumentonethatrendereditmoreattractiveanduserfriendlyandifajournalsguidelinesindicateanyspacingrequirementstheyareequallyvital.WhenajournalasksyoutousedoublelinespacingforinstancewhichtendstobethemostcommonspacingrequesteditsPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 28PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitybecausethosewhowillbeworkingwithyourtextfindthisformatthemostefficientsotheresnoreasonnottocomplyandspacingaboveandbelowheadingscanbeadjustedforaneffectivelayoutnomatterwhatbasiclinespacingyoureusing.Somejournalswillaskyoutonumberyoursectionsandsubsectionswhileotherswillveryspecificallyaskyounottodoso.Iftheguidelinesyoureworkingwithdocallfornumberedsectionstheywillalmostcertainlyrequirethenumberingofsubsectionsaswellwiththemoststandardformatasfollows1.mhyfirstlevel1.1Participantsand1.2Questionnairessecondleveland1.2.1TheFirstQuestionnaireand1.2.2TheSecondQuestionnairethirdlevel.BesuretouseafterthenumbersthepunctuationrequiredbythejournaloccasionallyforinstanceacoloninsteadofafullstopwillbewantedandbewareofautomaticallynumberingyoursectionsinaprogrammesuchasMicrosoftWordformoreonautomaticformattingseeSection5.3.Thisfunctioncanproduceatidylayoutofcoursebutitcanalsointroduceerrorsbasedonthewayinwhichyoutypematerialintoyourdocumentbydecidingthatoneofyournumberedheadingsshouldnotbeincludedinwhatitseesasanumberedlist.Thiswillresultinmisnumberingandtheproblemcanbemagnifiedifyouhaveseverallevelsofsubheadingsbringingdisordertoyoureffortstoachievecarefulorganisation.Soitsalwaysbesttonumberyoursectionsmanuallyandmaintaincontroloveryourpapersstructure.Itsalsobesttousethenumbersofsectionswherereferringtothemwithinyourpaperandifyoursectionsarentnumberedtomakeanycrossreferencesasspecificaspossibleusingtheexactwordingofheadingswheneveryoucan.Finallyafewjournalswillevensetspecificwordlimitsforeachsectionofapaperorsuggestthateachsectionshouldbeasingleparagraph.ThisrequirementismoredifficulttocomplywithbutitPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 29PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytoomustbetakenseriouslysoifyoufindthatyousimplyhavetoomuchinformationtofitintothewordlimitsforasinglesectionyoumayneedtoengageinalittlecreativedivisionanddeviseadditionalheadingstofindacompromisebetweenthejournalguidelinesandthenatureofyourresearchandpaper.3.2PararaphalieffcivPraiatraii3.2.1StructuredandFullyDevelopedParagraphsAsmentionedattheendofSection3.1afewjournalswillrecommendhowlongparagraphsonparticularsubjectsorinparticularsectionsshouldbebutasageneralrulejournalPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkPRSTipOneofthebestwaystoimproveyouruseheadingsofallkindsinthescholarlypapersyouwriteistopaycarefulattentiontohowheadingsareusedinthemanybooksandpapersyouread.Thiswillbeespeciallyhelpfulinthecaseofpaperspublishedbythejournaltowhichyourehopingtosubmityourownpaperofcoursebutitsalsogoodtobeawareofhowheadingsarelaidouttodealwiththechallengespresentedbythecontentsofanytext.ToenabletopicstobelocatedinthisGuideforinstancetherearefourlevelsofheadingunderthetitlewitheachlevelnumbereddifferentlyforprecisecross-referencingpartheadingsappearinalargebluefontwithRomannumeralsPartIPartIIetc.chaptertitlesinaboldfontwithArabicnumeralsChapter1Chapter2etc.chaptersectionsinaboldfontwithbothchapterandsectionnumbers1.11.2etc.andchaptersubsectionsinaregularfontwithchaptersectionandsubsectionnumbers4.4.14.4.2etc.. 30PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityguidelinesrarelyofferanyadviceabouthowtowritewell-structuredandfullydevelopedparagraphs.Theydontneglectthisaspectofwritingbecausetheydontexpectithoweveritismorelikelythatthereisanunspokenassumptionthatanyauthorsubmittinghisorherwritingtoarespectedacademicorscientificjournalwillalreadyknowhowwriteperfectparagraphs.Thisisntalwaysthecasehoweverandparticularlyforthoseworkinginalanguagenottheirownorthosenewtothepublishinggamewritingeffectiveparagraphscanbesomethingofachallengesoabitofpracticaladviceseemsinorderhere.Oneimportantfacttorememberisthatasinglesentencedoesnotmakeaparagraph.Thisdoesntmeanthatasinglesentencecannotstandalonebutthatitshouldonlydosoifthecontextandinformationjustifysuchspecialtreatment.Letssayforinstancethatyouhaveanumberofsentenceswitheachofthemoutliningtheresultsofaparticulartestormethodofanalysis.Insuchcasesauthorsoftenformateachsentenceasaseparateparagraphmostlikelybecausesuchastructureseparatesandthereforeclarifiestheinformation.Thisisntincorrectandtheoddjournalwillevenaskforsuchdatatobeseparatedinthisway.Inadditionshortparagraphslikeshortsentencescanbeagreatdealmoreeffectivethanoverlylongonesbutstrictlyspeakingaparagraphfocusesondevelopingasingleideasothatstringofsingle-sentenceparagraphsreportingresultscaninmanycasesbegatheredintoasingleparagraphthatdiscussestheresultsoftheanalyticaltestsconductedinastudy.IfyoufindthatyouonlyhaveasentenceworthofinformationtoreportregardingeachtestitsagoodideatoclusterthedatatogetherinthiswayandiftheinformationprovestoomuchforasingleparagraphitcanbedividedintotwoormoreparagraphswitheachonefocussingontestsofasimilarnatureorteststhatPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 31PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityrenderedsimilarresults.Paragraphwritingisfarfromanexactscienceofcoursebutstrictlyspeakingthefirstsentenceshouldintroducetheideathefollowingsentencesshoulddevelopitinanynumberofwaysandthelastsentenceshouldbringtheparagraphtoaneffectivecloseideallyinawaythatguidesyourreaderontothenextparagraph.Paragraphsthataretoolongcanbeproblematicaswellparticularlybecausetheytendtomergeanddevelopanumberofideasinsteadofseparatingthemforclarityandthereforecanlacklogicalinterconnectionorcoherence.Longparagraphsareoftenassociatedwithcomplexthoughtandinterrelatedideaswhichisexactlywhatonewantstoseeinanacademicorscientificarticlebutparagraphsthatrunontoolongandbecomejumbledcanobscuretheideaspresentedandlosetheattentionofreaderswhodonotknowyourmaterialaswellasyoudo.Bybreakinglongparagraphsintoshorterparagraphsyouprovideyourreaderswithvisualandintellectualbreaksthatofferthemthechancetoassimilatetheideasyouvejustdiscussedbeforemovingonthenextandyoualsomakeiteasierforthemtofindmaterialagainwhenneeded.Finallyyoucreateamoreeffectivestructureforthecomplexideasyourediscussingwhichcanimproveandclarifytheinformationyouresharingandthustheprogressionofyouroverallargument.Organisingyourpaperintoeffectiveparagraphswillonlybesuccessfulhoweverifthetransitionsbetweenyourparagraphsaresmoothandclear.Ifyouareshiftingtoadifferenttopicorfocussingonadifferentstudyasyoubeginanewparagraphyouneedtomakethatabsolutelyclearbyexplainingthetransition.UsespecificdiscoursemarkersindicatingachangeoftopicacomparisonorcontrastorafocusonadifferentstudyortextorPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 32PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityexperimentandrepeatwhateverwordsarenecessaryatthebeginningofanewparagraphtoconnectitlogicallytotheparagraphbeforeit.PronounssuchasitthisandtheyshouldbeavoidedatthebeginningofanewparagrapheveniftheantecedentisobviousstartingaparagraphwithapronounissimplypoorstyleinEnglishandwhentheantecedentisnotobviousitsextremelydifficultforyourreadertodetermineexactlywhatyouretalkingabout.UseanounornounphraseinsteadtoidentifyyoursubjectatthebeginningofanewparagraphandyoullfindthatnotonlyyourparagraphsbutthelogicalmovementofyourpaperasawholewillbenefitontheuseofpronounsseealsoSection4.4.3.3.2.2UsingListsEffectivelySomejournalsprovideadviceonformattinglistsbutitsrare.Thosethatdotendtoofferveryspecificguidelinesaskingauthorstousebulletedlistsornottousenumbersorlettersinsteadofbulletsdependingontheplacementofalistwithinthebodyofaparagraphorseparateortouseafullstoporasemi-colonaftereachitemdependingonthelengthandgrammaticalnatureoftheitems.Ifinstructionsofthiskindareprovidedreadthemcarefullyandfollowthempreciselythejournaleditorswouldnthavebotheredtoprovideallthosedetailsiftheydidntwantlistsformattedexactlyastheydescribe.Inmostcaseshoweversuchinstructionswontbeprovidedandyouwillneedtofigureoutforyourselfhowbesttopresentinformationinlistsandwhatevermethodsyouchooseasmosteffectivefortheinformationyouneedtopresentbalanceandparallelismwillbeessential.ThisistosaythateachiteminthelistPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 33PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityshouldbewordedandstructuredassimilarlytootheritemsinthelistaspossible.Ifthefirstitembeginswithanounfollowedbyaverbe.g.satisfactionisguaranteedthenitsbestnottowordtheseconditemwithaparticiplefollowedbyanoune.g.guaranteeingsatisfaction.Insteadadjustthewordingsothateveryiteminyourlistusesasimilarstructureespeciallyifthelistasawholeformsasentenceinwhichcasethesentencemustbecompleteandgrammaticallycorrect.Alwaysbesuretoobservecorrectgrammarasmuchaspossibleandiftheitemsinyourlistarelongitsbesttouseafullsentenceormorethanoneforeachitem.Inthiswayyourlistswillfunctioneffectivelywhethertheyreincorporatedintoasentenceinyourtextorseparatedinabulletedlistwithseveralsentencesineachitem.Inallcasesyoushouldtakespecialcaretointroduceanylistsyouusebyexplainingexactlywhatislaidoutineachlistandmakingthetransitionbetweenyourproseandyourlistsmoothandeffective.ForexampleifyoureabouttolistcategoriesofpersonalitytraitsconsideredintheparticipantsinyourstudymakethefunctionofthelistexplicitbyintroducingitwithsomethinglikeThefollowingpersonalitycategorieswereconsideredinthisstudyusingacolonafteritandpresentingthelistimmediately.ListscanbeextremelyeffectivewaysofpresentingorreportingcomplexinformationinclearandaccessiblewaysbutonlyiftheyareformattedandintroducedinamannerthatmakestheirfunctionandcontentabsolutelycleartoyourreadersandiftheirgrammarandsyntaxarecorrectandeffectiveinrelationtobothcontentandgoodEnglishseealsoSection4.4.1andforautomaticformattinginlistsSection5.3.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk PRSTipTheproofreadersatPRSreadalotofacademicandscientificwritinginawidevarietyofdisciplinesandspecialisationssowevekindofseenitallwhenitcomestothepresentationandlayoutofscholarlyarticlesthegoodthebadandtheugly.Asreaderswhoneedtounderstandthetextsbeforeusbothquicklyandthoroughlywecanattesttojusthowvitaltheuseofinformativedistinctiveandconsistentheadingsthelogicaldevelopmentofthoughtfulparagraphstheclearexplanationoftransitionsandtheeffectiveconstructionoflistsaretoyourreadersunderstandingofyourresearchandargument.Noticingwhenaspectsofyourwritingarentworkingtoimprovecommunicationorareinfacthinderingitispreciselywhatwedosowecanoffersuggestionsandcorrectionstohelpyouproduceacarefullyorganisedandbeautifullypresentedarticlethatlooksasgoodasitreads.34PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitycHAPteR4JuraguiiaFrmasharyeihAlthoughmanyaspectsofanacademicorscientificarticlecancontributetoreadersmisunderstandingormisinterpretingyourworkyourwritingstyleandtheaccuracyofthelanguageyouuseareofparamountimportancetosuccessfulcommunication.AllscholarlyjournalspublishingarticlesintheEnglishlanguagewillwantandtheguidelinesprovidedbymostofthemwillspecifytheneedforarticleswritteninEnglishthatisbothclearandcorrect.ManywillrecommendusingaprofessionalproofreaderwhoisproficientintheEnglishlanguageespeciallyifyouarenotanativeEnglishspeaker.BeforesendingyourworktoaproofreaderhoweveryouwillneedtodoeverythingyoupossiblycantomakeyourlanguageandstyleasPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 35PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityclearcorrectpreciseandconsistentaspossiblebecauseevenatalentedandexperiencedproofreaderwillonlybeabletohelpyoucommunicateeffectivelyifyoudosowellenoughthatheorshecangetagoodideaofwhatyouretryingtosay.TheuseofexcellentEnglishwillinanycasebenefitbothyouandyourarticleasyouworkthroughallthestagesofpublicationfromemailingeditorstoproofreadingthefinalcopyeditedversionofyourpaper.4.1BriihvruAmricaeihTheguidelinesofsomejournalswillindicatespecificrequirementsregardinglanguageanditsessentialthatyourwritingstylefollowstheseinstructionscarefully.ThemostcommonspecificationamongmanyEnglishjournalsistheuseofeitherBritishorAmericanEnglishandeventhosejournalsthatallowbothkindswillnotwanttoseeamixtureofBritishandAmericanspellingsinthesamepaper.DifferencesbetweenthetwoformsofEnglishincludeouinBritishversusoinAmericanBritishcolourandbehaviourAmericancolorandbehaviorreinBritishversuserinAmericanBritishtheatreAmericantheaterdoublingofconsonantsinBritishversussingleconsonantsinAmericanBritishmodellingandfocussedAmericanmodelingandfocusedand-iseendingsinBritishversus-izeendingsinAmericanBritishanalyseandrecognisingAmericananalyzeandrecognizing.Thelastofthesedifferencesisnolongerobservedasstrictlyasitoncewasand-izeendingsarenowacceptableinBritishEnglishaswellatleastasfarassomejournalsandpublishersareconcerned.Thereareotherdifferencesaswelle.g.oeinBritishvs.einAmericanmanoeuvrevs.maneuverandcertaininconsistenciesthatcanbeunpredictableparameterandcompromiseforexamplearethesameinbothBritishandAmericanbutthespellcheckfunctionofWordcanhelpPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 36PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityifyousetthelanguageasUKorUSEnglish.Theprogrammewontdoitallforyouhoweveranddobeawarethatitsnotalwaysreliablebutmanydictionarieswillprovidealternatespellingssoifyoureunsureaboutawordtakethetimetolookitup.4.2UraiAbbrviaiTheguidelinesprovidedbymostjournalswillhavesomethingtosayabouttheuseofabbreviations.Somefrownuponthemandaskauthorstokeeptheirusetoabareminimumortouseonlystandardabbreviationsformeasures.Otherswillexpectyoutouseabbreviationsbutgiveveryspecificinstructionsabouthowtheyshouldbeintroduceddefinedusedwithconsistencyandprovidedinanalphabeticallistaswellasinthetext.Ifthejournaltowhichyouresubmittingyourpaperofferssuchspecificinstructionsfollowthemcarefullybuteveniftheguidelinessayvirtuallynothingaboutusingabbreviationsthereareusefulandeffectivewaysofusingabbreviationsthatshouldbeobservedinallcasesfortwoimportantreasonstomaintainconventionalprofessionalstandardsandtoensurethatyourreaderswillunderstandyourabbreviationsandthuswhatyouaresayingaboutthetermsandconceptsyouabbreviate.StandardabbreviationsofmeasurescanbefoundinanumberofplacessuchastheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationAPAandotherstylemanualsandmanydictionariesandgenerallydonotneedtobedefinedinyourpaper.Sotheimportantpointwithsuchabbreviationsistousetheappropriateformatforeachanduseitintheexactsameformateachandeverytimetheabbreviationisusedmsformillisecondforexamplenotmsinoneinstanceandmsecinthenextkphandmphnotkmhrandmph.ThesameisthecasewithcommonLatinabbreviationssuchasetc.e.g.i.e.cf.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 37PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityvs.andviz.Ifyouregoingtousethemdosowithcompleteconsistency.TechnicallyspeakingnoneoftheseLatinabbreviationsneedstobeinitalicsandthefullstopsshouldappearwhereIveplacedthemherebutsomeguidelineswillvarythisslightlybyusingitalicsoreliminatingthefullstopssoitsalwaysworthchecking.AsageneralruleofgoodstyletheseLatinabbreviationsshouldbeusedonlyinparentheticalmateriali.e.insideparenthesesmainsentencesthatusee.g.i.e.andcf.oftenbecomeincomprehensibleespeciallyifthewriterisntentirelysureexactlywhattheabbreviationsmeancf.forinstancewhichismisusedmoreoftenthannotmeanscomparenotsee.SowriteoutexactlywhatyoumeaninyourmainsentencesandwhenyoudousetheseLatinabbreviationsparentheticallybesureyouknowwhattheymeanandusethemcorrectly.TheLatinabbreviationsetal.ibid.loc.cit.andop.cit.aregenerallyusedinthecontextofreferencelistsfootnotesendnotesandcitations.Thelasttwoloc.cit.andop.cit.tendedtobeconfusingevenwhentheywerewidelyusedandthankfullyhavebeenvirtuallyabandonedinmodernscholarshipsoyouremostlikelytofindguidelineswarningagainsttheirusethaninstructingauthorsonhowtousethemcertainlytheyrebestavoided.Ibid.ontheotherhandisstillusedinfootnoteandendnotereferencesinthehumanities.Itabbreviatesibidemwhichmeansinthesameplaceorinthatveryplacesoisusedinsteadofrepeatingbibliographicalinformationwhenasourceiscitedimmediatelyafterithasbeencitedintheprecedingnoteorsentencewithinanote.Becauseitmeansinthatveryplaceitmustbeusedwithgreatcareonlyifeverythingaboutthesecondcitationisexactlythesameasthefirstcanitbeusedalone.Forexampleifthereferenceinfootnote1isSmithAmadeusp.4andyouneedtocitethesameauthorbookandpagenumberinfootnote2thenibid.canPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 38PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitybeusedalonebutifyourecitingthesameauthorandbookinfootnote2withadifferentpagenumberthenthepagenumbershouldbeaddedibid.p.7.Neveruseibid.ifitsmeaningispotentiallyunclearifforinstanceyouvecitedtwosourcesinfootnote1andyouuseibid.infootnote2yourreaderswillnotbeabletotellwhichsourceyoumeanbyibid.InsuchcasesmoredetailmustbeprovidedSmithibid.forexampleortheuseofibid.shouldbeavoidedaltogether.Themeaningofidemandeademissimilarsoalthoughtheyrenotabbreviationstheyshouldbeconsideredalongwiththesereferencingabbreviations.TheybothmeanthesamewithidembeingthemasculineformandeademthefeminineandalthoughtheytendtoappearinEnglishdictionariesespeciallyidemsodontneedtobeinitalicfonttheyareoftenitalicised.Theyareusedpredominantlyinfootnotesandendnoteswhenanauthorwhohasjustbeencitedisimmediatelycitedasecondtime.ForexampleifyouvejustcitedSmithAmadeusp.4andyourenowcitingSmithBeethovenp.8youcanuseidemBeethovenp.8ifSmithisamanoreademBeethovenp.8ifSmithisawoman.Aswithibid.howevertheseLatintermsneedtobeusedonlywhenitsabsolutelyclearwhichauthorisbeingcitedandifthereisanypotentialforconfusiondontusethem.SincemanyjournalsdontencouragetheuseofsuchLatinshortcutsitsalsoagoodideatocheckthejournalguidelinesandonlyusethemiftheiruseisspecifiedasacceptable.TheLatinabbreviationetal.isusedinvirtuallyallacademicandscientificjournalswhenreferringtoauthorsofamulti-authorwork.Itabbreviatesetaliimasculineetaliaefeminineoretalianeuteralthoughthismeaningisntreallyrelevantforauthorswhoarenecessarilymenorwomenratherthanobjectswithoutgender.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 39PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAlloftheseLatintermsmeanandtheothersandbecauseetisthecompleteLatinwordforandafullstopshouldneverfollowtheetpart.Afullstopshouldfollowal.howeverbutdocheckthejournalguidelinesorstylemanualyourefollowingbecausesomewillcallforetalwithoutthefinalfullstopandsomewillrequiretheuseofitalicsontheabbreviation.Generallyspeakingetal.istheonlyoneoftheseLatinabbreviationsthatcanbeusedinthemaintextofformalacademicorscientificproseaswellasinparentheticalmaterialJacksonetal.2013arguedthatorInthisstudyJacksonetal2013itisarguedthat.ontheuseofetal.seealsoSection5.2.1.ThemostnotoriousofabbreviationsistheacronymanabbreviationmadeupofthefirstlettersofallthewordsoronlythemainwordsinanameortermWHOfortheWorldHealthOrganizationisawell-knownexample.WiththeexceptionofafewacronymsthatarebetterknownthanthetermstheyabbreviateIQandAIDSforinstanceeachacronymyouuseinyourpapershouldbeformallyintroducedbypresentingthefullversionofthetermornamealongwiththeabbreviatedversioninparenthesesbeforetheacronymiseverusedonitsowntheWorldHealthOrganizationWHOreported.MakesurethatyoupositiontheabbreviatedformtorepresentaccuratelyexactlywhattheacronymabbreviatesthecriticaltimegapCTGtestrevealednotthecriticaltimegaptestCTGrevealedandthatyoursubsequentuseoftheacronymreflectsthatplacementCTGmeaningcriticaltimegapbutnottestaswell.Ifyouuseanacronymforacorporateauthorinanin-textcitationWHO2012youcansimplyintroducethefulltermandacronyminreverseorderinthereferencelistWHOWorldHealthOrganizationinsteadofWorldHealthOrganizationWHO.Thisensuresthatyourreaderwillbeabletofindthereferenceeasilyinyourlistbutalsoprovidescompletebibliographicalinformation.IfPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 40PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityyoudonotfollowthesesimpleprocedureswhenusingacronymsyourreadermaynotknowwhatyouretalkingaboutafrustratingexperienceforbothauthorandreader.Onceanacronymhasbeenintroducedinthismannerhoweveryoucanuseitwithconfidenceknowingthatyoullbeunderstoodsolongasyouuseitaccuratelyandconsistently.Manyjournalswillaskthatanacronymbeusedinallcasesinsteadofthefulltermonceitsbeenintroducedandthatacronymsnotbeintroducedandusedatallunlesstheyreusedwithconsiderablefrequency.Thereareanumberofotherconcernsthatyoushouldalsoconsiderwhenusingacronymsandotherabbreviations.ForinstancesometimesapluraltermsuchasUnitedNationsisabbreviatedwithanacronymthatdoesntshowthepluralnatureofthefullversionUNbutifyouregoingtouseanabbreviationforbothsingularandpluralformsofatermaddanswhenyouintendthepluraloftheoriginalKIforkeyinformantbutKIsforkeyinformants.InsuchcasesmakesurethatyouusetheappropriateformsingularorpluralwhenyouintroduceanddefinetheabbreviationMykeyinformantsKIswerenotMykeyinformantsKIwereandthatthelanguageyouusearoundtheacronymwhenitsusedalonereflectsthedifferenceMyKIswerenotMyKIswastheuseofthatswillhelpwiththis.Generallyspeakingabbreviationsofallkindsshouldbeavoidedintheheadingsandsubheadingsofyourpapereveniftheyvealreadybeenintroducedanddefinedandsomejournalswillaskthattheybeavoidedintheabstractofapaperaswell.IfyoudohavetouseabbreviationsinyourabstractdefiningthemtheredoesnotmeanyoucanavoiddoingsointhemainpapertheywillneedtobeintroducedanddefinedinbothplacesontheuseofabbreviationsandacronymsinthetablesfigurestitleabstractandkeywordsofanacademicorscientificpaperseeSections5.16.2below.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 414.3PucuaiApprpriayPauseandEffectthetitleofanacclaimedbookonthepunctuationoflate-medievalmanuscripts1neatlysummarisesaprimaryfunctionofpunctuationpunctuationtellsyourreaderwhentopauseandcanhaveanenormouseffectontheabilityofyourprosetocommunicateyourthoughtsclearly.Punctuationhasanumberofotherfunctionsaswellandcanmeanthedifferencebetweenyourcarefullycraftedsentencesfunctioningsuccessfullyorfailing.Sentencesthatlacknecessarypunctuationorusepunctuationincorrectlycanendupsayingsomethingverydifferentfromwhatyouintended.ThereisnoonesetofuniversalrulestofollowwhenpunctuatingEnglishprosehoweverandeachsentencewhetherlongorshortladenwithparentheticalclausesorstraighttothepointisauniqueconstructthatmustbepunctuatedindividuallyandwithcare.Aswithsomanyotheraspectsofanacademicorscientificpapereffectivepunctuationrequiresprecisionandconsistencyandtherearesomebasicprinciplesandpatternsthatshouldbeobserved.Firsttakecaretoreadwhateverthejournalsguidelinesmaysayaboutpunctuation.Itsraretofindmuchifanyadviceonpunctuationinauthorinstructionsbutthereareinstancesofveryspecificrequirements.Theuseofacommabeforeandinlistsofthreeormoreitemsisanexamplesomejournalswillwantthecommabirdsbutterfliesandbeesandsomewillnotbirdsbutterfliesandbeesifajournalsguidelinesbothertoadviseauthorseitherwaytakethatadvicetoheartandapplyitconsistently.TheuseofacommainconjunctionwithanandthatopensanadditionalindependentclauseinasentencecomestomindasanotherpunctuationissueIveseenaddressedinjournalguidelines.FurtheradviceonthisandotherpunctuationusagepatternsissometimesprovidedinacademicandscientificstylemanualsaswellAPAChicagoetc.soifthejournalPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk1MalcolmParkesPauseandEffectPunctuationintheWestBerkeleyCAUniversityofCaliforniaPress1993. 42PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityyouresubmittingyourpapertorecommendsusingaparticularstylefamiliariseyourselfwiththepunctuationruleslaidoutinthecorrespondingmanual.Whenitcomesdowntothenitty-grittyofpunctuatingyourpaperhoweveryoullneedtodecidewhichpatternswillworkbesttocommunicateyourresearchandargument.Onceyouvechosenthepatternsyoulluseacommaornotbeforethatandinlistsforinstancebeconsistentinallsimilarconstructions.Onlyifyouneedtochangeyourusualpracticetoincreasetheclarityofasentenceordecreasetheriskofmisinterpretationshouldyouvarythepatternbyusingacommabeforethatandinlistswhenabsolutelynecessaryforinstanceeventhoughasageneralruleyoudonot.WhileyourerefiningyourpunctuationpracticesitmightbehelpfultokeepafewbasicsinmindRememberthatadependentclauseopeningasentenceandinotherpositionsaswellshouldusuallybefollowedbyacommae.g.AccordingtoSmiththeseresultsalthoughshorterclausescanfunctionwellwithoutonee.g.In2003thenumbersincreased.FullstopsarealwaysusedattheendofasentenceandtheyshouldbeplacedinsidetotheleftoffootnotesoutsidetotherightofparentheticalcitationsandeitherinsideoroutsideVancouver-stylenumericalreferencesdependingonjournalguidelines.Thefunctionofacolonisentirelydifferentfromthatofasemi-colonandthetwoarefrequentlyconfusedacolonheraldsanexampleorseveralexamplesoftenintheformofalistorquotationoranexplanationofwhathasjustbeenstatedjustasthecoloninthissentencedoesasemi-colonontheotherhandisasitisinthissentenceratherlikealargecommaseparatingPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 43PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityindependentsectionsofalongandcomplexsentenceorsometimestheitemsofalistthatformsalongsentenceinplaceswhereacommasimplywontsufficientlyclarifythesentencestructureandmeaning.Hyphenationcanbeincrediblytrickybecausedictionariesstylemanualsandsometimesjournalguidelinescanallindicatedifferentpatternsandrulesintersubjectivityorinter-subjectivitynonsignificantornon-significantreintroduceorre-introduceandsoon.IfthejournalyouresubmittingtodoesnotprovidespecificinstructionsoraspecificstylesuchasChicagotofollowthebestpolicyistoadoptasystemandsticktoitrememberingthatcertaincompoundsshouldalwaysbehyphenatedwhentwovowelswouldendupbacktobackwithoutthehyphenre-establishwhenconfusioncouldresultwerethetermclosedre-createwhichhasadifferentmeaningthanrecreatewhenthesecondelementbearsacapitalnon-Englishorisanumeralpre-1990sandwhenacompoundadjectiveappearsbeforeanounawell-knowntheorybutatheorythatiswellknown.FinallyalthoughindicatedbytinyapostrophesthatcangetlostattimespossessivesshouldalwaysbeaccuratelypunctuatedwiththegeneralrulebeingthattheapostropheappearsbeforethesinthesingularformstudentsandafteritinthepluralstudentsthoughthereareasalwaysinEnglishexceptionsmensforexamplewhichdoesnotuseansforthepluralformsothesistheresolelytoindicatethepossessiveandtheapostropheappearsbeforeit.TrynottooverusepossessivesparticularlyintheirpluralformtheycanbecomeawkwardinEnglishsoitsoftenbesttowriteoutaphraseusingofinsteadofstackingpossessivestheparticipantsfathersoccupationsforinstanceisclearerandmoreelegantastheoccupationsoftheparticipantsfathers.OntheuseofquotationmarksseeSection5.2.1below.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk PRSTipItsamazinghowdetailscanberightbeforetheeyesandstillslippastunnoticedbutsuchisthecasewithincorrectpunctuationfamiliarabbreviationsandspellingvariations.Sometimesthisisbecausethedetailissmallandunobtrusiveafullstopistinyafterallandasemi-colonlooksmuchlikeacolonwhentheresnotimetodomorethanglanceatit.AtothertimesitsduetonotknowingeveryonehastolookupthedifferencesbetweenAmericanandBritishEnglishattimes.AtstillothertimessuchnegligenceisparadoxicallycausedbyknowingthematerialtoowellIveseenmorethanonepaperinwhichanauthorworkstodefineeveryacronymthatsusedonceortwiceandevensomethatarentusedagainatallonlytoneglectprovidingadefinitionforanabbreviationthatsunusualused50or100timesinthepaperandabsolutelycentraltothedataandargument.Aclassiccaseofbeingsoimmersedinonesownworkthatitbecomesdifficulttoseewhattheaudiencemightneedthisforcesaguessinggameonreadersexceptthoseluckyenoughtoknowthemeaningalreadyandleadstofrustrationandpotentialmisunderstanding.FortunatelythePRSproofreadingteamhasmanyeyeswelltrainedinthedetectionofsuchproblemsandthetimetoattendtothemthoroughlyandwithprecision.44PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality4.4FiiYurscharyvicAlthoughanyauthorshouldworktoestablishavoiceofauthoritywhenwritingthisisnowheremoreimportantthaninacademicandscientificproseasascholarlywriteryouneedtoassumeaprofessionalstanceandsoundineverywaylikeyouknowexactlywhatyouretalkingabout.InordertodothisitsessentialthatyoudoPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 45PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityknowwhatyouretalkingaboutofcoursebutitsentirelypossibletoknowyoursubjectintimatelyandworkveryhardtoexpressthemostprofoundofthoughtsaboutitonlytofailbecausecertainaspectsofthelanguageandphrasingyouusecomeacrosstoyourreadersasawkwardimpreciseorunprofessional.AttendingtoalltheissuesraisedaboveaccurateandeffectivepunctuationappropriateuseofabbreviationsconsistentadherencetoBritishorAmericanspellingcompletesentencesorganisedintowell-developedparagraphsawell-plannedpaperusingsoundsourcesandmethodstoconstructameaningfulargumentandsooncontributestoawrittenvoicethatspeakswithprofessionalauthoritybutthereareanumberofothermatterssomeofthemseeminglysmalldetailsthatoftenproveproblematicandcanliterallymakeorbreakapaperbyeitherengagingandconvincingorlosingandannoyingreaders.4.4.1VocabularyFormalityPrecisionandVarietyAscholarlywrittenvoiceisnecessarilyaformalwrittenvoicenotquiteasformalasitoncewasofcoursebuttheprincipleremains.Thismeansthateverythingaboutthelanguageyouuseinapaperyourepreparingforpublicationinanacademicorscientificjournalshouldbeabsolutelycorrectpreciseandprofessionalingrammaticalsyntacticandorthographicterms.Althoughonceasbasicasmethodsandresultsformalityhasbecomeespeciallychallenginginaclimateofdigitalsocialnetworkingthatencouragestheuseofinformalandoftenincorrectlanguageandtendstosuggestparticularlytoyoungerscholarsthatsuchinformalitiesareequallyacceptablebeyondtherealmoftweetingandtextmessaging.TheyarenotandshouldbestrictlyavoidedinformalacademicorscientificproseincludingCVsproposalsandjobPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 46PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityapplicationsaswellasresearchpapersthesesandscholarlybooks.Therewardsofpolishingyourwritingskillsaresignificantandtheresalwaysthepossibilityofdiscoveringthatcarefullycraftedformalproseisarathereffectivemeansofexpressingcomplexideas.Oneoftheeasiestandmostobviouswaysinwhichtoincreasetheformalityaswellastheprecisionofyourwritingistochooseyourvocabularywithspecialcare.Thiscanmeanusingtheexactsamewordrepeatedlyorvaryingyourvocabularywitheachoftheseappropriateindifferentsituationsandfordifferentreasons.Addingvarietytoyourvocabularyisessentialtoproducinganeloquentwritingstylethatwillholdtheinterestofreadersandmanywordsinasentencecaneasilybechangedtocreatevarietywithoutalteringmeaning.Avoidforinstancestartingeverysentencewithhoweverthereforethusmoreoverorfurthermoreusethesebutmixthemupinyourprose.Useparticularlyinsomeinstancesandespeciallyinothersuseaswellasinsteadofandattimesandyetorhoweverinsteadofbut.Whenreportingresultsoftrialsandtestsvaryshowedwithrevealedorsuggestedorindicatedandwhencomparingideascategoriesandresultsusemorethanandlessthanaswellascomparedwithandcontrastedwith.Becarefulhoweverwheneliminatingwordstovaryyourlanguage.Forexampleinpinkshirtsweregivento12ofthemenbutbluetowomenthereadereasilysuppliestheverbweregivenmissingfromthesecondhalfofthesentenceanditsalsofairlyclearthatbluestandsforblueshirtsbutheorshemaybewonderingtowhatwomenDoestheauthormeanallofthewomeninthestudyalthoughonly12ofthemenweregivenshirtsClearlymoreinformationisneededhereandthoseofamoretraditionalpersuasionwouldsaythatallthemissingwordsshouldbeincludedwhenitcomestoreportingprecisedataaboutmethodsandresults.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 47PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAmoreflexibleapproachistouseenoughwordsandtherightonestomakeyourmeaningabsolutelyclearbutyoucanstillvaryyourlanguagesomewhatwhiledoingsobutblueonestothesamenumberofwomen.Beextremelycarefulwhenvaryingoreliminatingtermsthatdefineaspectsandelementsofyourresearchmethodologyandargumentorreportpreciseresults.Inthecaseofcomparisonforinstancebesuretoexplainwithprecisiontheexactdetailsofeachsideofacomparisonorcontrastdonotassumethatyourreadersknowwhatyourecomparingorcontrastinganddonotleaveoutessentialdetailsofthecomparison.Wecomparedthescoresthegirlsearnedinthethirdtrialwiththeboysissimplywrongthescoresearnedbythegirlswerenodoubtcomparedwiththescoresearnedbytheboysnottheboysthemselvesandtheboysscoreswereprobablyobtainedinanumberedtrialaswellsothereaderneedsmoreherethantheauthorhasprovided.Besuretousethesametermsanddefinitionsforthesameconceptsorcategoriesthroughoutyourpaperespeciallywhenthoseconceptsandcategoriesarecentraltoyourargumentforexampleifyouveintroducedyourstudygroupsassurgicalgroupnonsurgicalgroupandcontrolgroupdonotsuddenlychangethatterminologypartwaythroughyourpaperifyourquestionnairesarenumbered12and3avoidreferringtothemwithoutthenumbersbecausethiscanincreasethepossibilityofunnecessaryconfusionandifyourstudyinvolvesparticipantswhoareyoungwomenandyoungmendonotcallthemgirlsandboysunlesstheyactuallyaregirlsandboyssomejournalshavestrictrulesaboutageinrelationtothesetermssoremembertochecktheguidelinesaswellasusingcommonsensewithregardtosuchtermsi.e.peopleover20andusuallyover18arenevergirlsandboys.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 48PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAllscholarsusespecialisedterminologyattimesandcertainlysuchterminologycancommunicatewithaprecisionthatotherwordssimplycantmanage.Iftheresanydoubtaboutyourreadersfamiliaritywiththeterminologyyouuseinyourpaperyouwillneedtotakespecialcaretoexplainitandtheideasbehinditwithprecisionandasthoroughlyasnecessarytoallowyourreaderstounderstandthesignificanceofyourmethodologyandargument.Ifyourewritingforaspecialisedjournalyoucanassumeaneditorandcertainlyreviewersfamiliarwiththeterminologyassociatedwiththeareaofspecialisationbutyoustillneedtousespecialisedvocabularycarefullyandneveruseasmatteringofscientificortheoreticaltermsasasubstituteforexplainingideas.Thebestscholarlywritingdemonstratesnotjustaproficiencyinusingspecialisedterminologybutalsoadeepunderstandingoftheideasbehindtheterminologyanditexplainsthoseideasforitsreaderswhiletakingthembothideasandreadersinnewdirections.AnyabbreviationsofspecialisedterminologyshouldbeusedwiththesameprecisionastheoriginaltermsandrememberthatifyouusealisttodefinetermsoroutlinecategoriesofanykindyourreaderswilllikelyreturntothelistsincelistsareparticularlyeasytolocateinordertoreviewandcheckthetermsyouveusedifanythingdoesproveconfusingsobeespeciallycarefultousethosetermsandcategoriesintheexactsameformselsewhereinthepaperseealsoSection3.2.2onformattinglists.Closelyrelatedtospecialisedterminologyisthejargonpeculiartoaprofessionorfieldofstudy.Suchjargonoftenincludesspecialisedvocabularybutalsotendstouseconvolutedsyntaxorawkwardwordorderandcanprovetobeunintelligibleorverynearlysotoreaders.ForinstancealowyoungvoterturnoutelectionissimplypoorEnglishandnotnearlyaseffectiveforcommunicatingmeaningasanelectionwithalowturnoutofyoungvoters.ThewordjargonisoftendefinedindictionariesasmeaninglesswritingvaguelanguageorPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 49PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitygibberishnoneofwhichthescholarlywriterwantsinhisorhertext.SuchlanguageisoftentheresultofauthorsbeingsoimmersedintheirrespectivefieldsofstudythattheyareunawarethattheyrefailingtocommunicateclearlyinplainEnglisheventomanyintheirownfieldsbutsometimesIsuspectitisusedtocreateanimpressionoflearnednessormystique.Ifreadersdontunderstandwhattheyrereadinghoweveranyimpressionoftheauthorslearningbecomesfrustratinginsteadofimpressiveandwhilemystiquecertainlyhasitsproperplaceitisnotinacarefullywrittenscholarlyarticle.Ifyoumustusejargonkeepittoaminimumandbesuretoexplainitsmeaningonfirstuse.Numbersarentexactlyspecialisedterminologybuttheaccuratepunctuationpointfullstopcommaorneitherandformattingofnumbersaswordsornumeralscanbecomplicatedandallthemoresobecausetherulestendtobeverypreciseyetvaryfromstyletostyleandjournaltojournalsoitsessentialtoconsulttheguidelinesandfollowthepatternsrequiredindetail.Therearehoweverafewgeneralrulesthatreappearfrequentlyacrossstylesandareconsistentwiththeexpectationsofmostacademicandscientificjournals.Theyaregoodtootokeepinmindifyourenotfollowinganyparticularstyleorguidelinesbutformattingnumbersaccordingtoyourownmethods.Neverstartasentencewithanumeralwhateverthenumberisitneedstobewrittenoutasaword.SoitshouldbeOneparticipantnot1participantandFifty-sixmennot56men.Forlargernumbersthatwouldbecumbersometowriteoute.g.14386itsbesttorewordthesentencesoitdoesntstartwiththenumber.Numbersdirectlyassociatedwithmeasuresofanykindshouldbewrittenasnumerals4mm23cm130mph8mandsoon.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 50PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityIninstancesotherthanthetwonotedabovenumbers10andovershouldbewrittenasnumerals13participantsapopulationof426womenand56menwhilenumbersunder10shouldbewrittenaswordsfourtrialssixstudentsandeightparticipants.Ordinalnumbersshouldfollowthesamepatternascardinalnumbersthatisnumbers10andovershouldbewrittenasnumeralsandnumbersunder10shouldbewrittenaswordsthe56thmaninthesecondtrialandtheeighthparticipantinthe77thtrial.WhenwritingnumbersasnumeralsbesuretoobserveEnglishconvention1389.09foronethousandthreehundredandeighty-ninepointzeroninenot1.38909butalsocheckthejournalguidelinesincasethereareanyspecialinstructionsaboutusingnumbers.Afewjournalswillaskforlesspunctuationeliminatingthecommafromthenumberabove1389.09forinstance.FinallyformalEnglishprosedoesnotusecontractions.Contractionsareformedwhenlettersareleftoutofwordsandindicatedbyanapostropheinstead.Examplesbasedonnegativesnotareespeciallycommondontdoesntwontshouldntwouldntandcouldntarecommonexamplesandoftenslipintoacademicandscientificprose.TheywontcreateconfusionandIusethemthroughoutthisGuidetoproduceacasualtonebutcasualisnotwhatyouwantinaformalacademicorscientificpapersocontractionsshouldalwaysbeavoided.Inmyexperiencescholarsdontusuallyintendtousecontractionsintheirwritingbuttheyaresocommonandnaturalinnormalspeechthattheycanalltooeasilycreepintowritingwheneveranauthorisntentirelyvigilant.Soonceyouhaveyourpaperdrafteddoasearchforapostrophesandexpandanycontractionsthatturnupleavingapostrophesforpossessivesorsinglequotationmarksonly.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 51PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality4.4.2EnglishVerbsTensingUpandSplittingHairsIfyouhaveattimesfoundyourselfcursingthenatureofEnglishverbsyoumightreceiveconsolationfromthefactthatyouarenotalone.EvenfornativeEnglishspeakersandwritersproficientinthelanguageEnglishcanbeanotoriouslydifficultlanguagetousecorrectlymoresotouseelegantlyandverbsareamongthemosttroublesomeaspectsofEnglishtonegotiate.Englishverbsareoftenformedbyacombinationofseparatewordstounderstandwillhaveunderstoodhadunderstoodetc.inawayverydifferentfromtheconjugationofverbsinotherlanguages.Thenuancesofthevariousformsortensescommunicatedifferenttemporalmessagesandtheproblemiscomplicatedinscholarlyprosebecausereferringaccuratelyandeffectivelytotheideasandresultsfoundinsourcescanbechallenging.Tensepresentperfectpluperfectetc.isakeyissueandmanyascholarlyparagraphreportinginformationfromsourcesbreaksdownbecausethetenseoftheverbsitusesisinconsistentordoesnotchangeaccordingtothenatureofthecontent.AsageneralrulemuchofwhatissaidinpreviousscholarshipcanbereferredtointhepresenttenseforexampleJones1985arguesthatParkes1993outlinesthreebasicprinciplesandaccordingtoJohnson2010theseresultsare.HoweverifyourecomparingorcontrastingstudiesdoneatdifferenttimesyoumayneedtovarythetenseyouuseJones1985arguedperfectthattheproblemcouldnotbeovercomebutJohnson2010shedspresentnewlightonthesituation.OftenusingacompoundformwithhasorhaveismoreeffectivethanasimplepastorperfecttensewhenspeakingofscholarlytrendsordevelopmentsforinstanceInrecentyearsmanystudieshavepaidfarmoreattentiontoandSincethe1990stherehavebeenseveralstudiesthat.HoweverthestudiesyourereferringtowereinfactconductedinthepastsotheperfecttensePARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 52PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytoocanbecorrectlyusedwhenreferringtostudiesandtheirauthorsforexampleThestudybyJones1985exploredthemigrationhabitsofmonarchbutterfliesandJohnson2010investigatedthephenomenonbymakingextensiveuseoftheworkofJones1985.Aswithsomuchaboutwritingwelltherearenohardandfastrulestofollowexceptthatitwillalwayshelptoconceptualiseandcontextualiseclearlyinbothtemporalandintellectualtermsthesourcesandideastowhichyourereferringandadjustyourverbformsaccordingly.AmongthemosttroublesomeofverbformsinEnglishistheinfinitive.InmostlanguagestheinfinitiveofaverbisasinglewordthefamousLatinphrasevenividiviciIcameIsawIconqueredforinstancebecomesvenireviderevincereusingtheinfinitiveforms.InEnglishhowevertheinfinitivesofverbsareformedthroughtheadditionoftotocometoseetoconquerandthetwoelementsoftheinfinitivetoandconquershouldnosoonerbeseparatedfromeachotherthanshouldthe-ireor-ereendingbeseparatedfromthestemofoneoftheLatininfinitives.TherearethoseofcoursewhoclaimthatsplittingEnglishinfinitivesisnolongeraconcerneventhatsuchfussingoververbsistantamounttosplittinghairsbutIveseenpapersreturnedforrevisionbytheeditorsofscholarlyjournalswiththespecificrequesttoremoveorrewordallsplitinfinitivesandrightlyso.Splitinfinitivesareincorrectgrammarandsimplynotanaspectofformalacademicorscientificprose.HoweversplitinfinitivesarealsoallaroundusdailyinourspeechandinformalwrittencommunicationsonourradioandtelevisionprogrammesStartrekstoboldlygoisthemostfamousorinfamousdependingonyourperspectiveandevenwherewemightleastexpecttofindthem.CheckoutforinstancethedescriptiveparagraphaboutJournalCitationReportsontheThomsonReuterswebsitewhichclaimsthattheReportsofferasystematicobjectivemeanstocriticallyPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 53PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityevaluatetheworldsleadingjournalsanunfortunatecombinationofwordsthatinvitesthereadertoevaluatetheinfinitivewhichissplitinthiscasewithacriticaleyethequalityoftheEnglishused.Infinitivesareusuallysplitwithanadverbaddedbetweenthetwopartsoftheverbasboldlyandcriticallysplittheinfinitivesintheexamplesaboveandsuchsplitinfinitivessometimessoundsonaturalthattheycansneakpasttheeyeofeventhemostseasonedprofessionalproofreader.Atothertimesthewordingofasentenceseemstosoundbetterwhentheinfinitiveissplitbyanadverbboldlytogoandtogoboldlysimplydontresonateastoboldlygodoesprobablylargelybecausesomeofushaveheardthelastsooftenthatitnowseemsright.Nonethelessanadverbshouldalwaysberemovedfromamidstaninfinitiveandeitherplacedelsewhereinthesentenceorreplacedwithalternativewordingforexampletoevaluatecriticallyortoevaluatewithacriticaleye.Thiswillsometimesprovemorechallengingthanitsoundsandincertaininstancestheadverboradverbialphrasewillhavetobeabandonedaltogethertomakeasentenceworkeffectivelybutassomeofthebestadviceforwritersclaimstherightverboftendoesntneedanadverbtomodifyitatallmuchastherightnounoftendoesnotneedanadjective.AnotherconcernwhenusingEnglishverbsarisesfromthedifferencebetweenthepassiveandactivevoices.IntheactivevoiceasubjectisclearlystatedandtheverbisactiveWeinvestigatedtherelationshipbetweenchangingweatherpatternsandthecoverageprovidedbyhomeinsurancepolicies.InthepassivevoicetheobjectbecomesthesubjectandtheverbispassiveTherelationshipbetweenchangingweatherpatternsandthecoverageprovidedbyhomeinsurancepolicieswasinvestigated.BotharecorrectEnglishofcoursebutbecausethepassivevoicedoesnotnamethepeopledoingtheinvestigatingitfailstoconveywithprecisionwhodidtheresearchtheauthorsofthepresentarticleaspartofthecurrentPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 54PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitystudyforinstanceorathirdpartyorpartiesworkingatsomeothertimewhooughttobecited.Someacademicandscientificauthorswilldeliberatelyusethepassivevoiceinanabstractperhapsduetoamisconceptionthatthepassivevoiceisscholarlybutascholarlyvoiceisnevervagueasthepassivevoicecanbeandsomejournalguidelineswillactuallyaskthatthepassivevoicebeavoidedespeciallyinabstractswhereprecisionexpressedviaasfewwordsaspossibleisparticularlyimportant.Sodochecktheguidelinesandwhenyouusethepassivevoicedososparinglyandwithcarefulattentiontowhatitactuallysaysanddoesnotsay.4.4.3UsingPronounsProfessionallyandClearlyPronounsareamongthemostfriendlyfeaturesoflanguagetheyallowtheauthororspeakertosaywhatneedstobesaidwithmuchgreaterefficiencyandelegancethanwouldbepossiblewereheorsheobligedtorepeatedlyusethesamenounornounphraseseveraltimesevenwithinthesamesentence.Howeverpronounscanalsobeamongthemostuser-unfriendlyfeaturesofacademicorscientificprose.TherearetimesincreativewritingwhenambiguityaboutthemeaningofapronounisdeliberateandeffectivebutinscholarlywritingthemeaningofapronounshouldbeobviousandcertainandanyrareinstancesofdeliberateambiguityexplainedasIexplaintheuseofthemforbothideasandreadersinSection4.4.1aboveorclearlyjustifiedbythematerial.Thismeansthattherelationshipbetweenapronounanditsantecedentshouldbeclearlyestablishedsothatnodoubtaboutthemeaningofthepronounexists.ForexampleinThemotherthoughttheboywaslost.HewasactuallyatafriendshouseHecanonlyrefertotheboysotheresnoriskofconfusion.HoweverinTheboylosthisolddogJake.HewasactuallyatafriendshousetheantecedentofHeisnotclear.SincetheboyisthesubjectofthePARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 55PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityfirstsentencethereadermightexpectHetorefertotheboybutitcouldalsorefertothemaledogJakesoconfusioniscreatedaboutwhatisactuallybeingsaidandthusabouttheimplicationsofthetext.IsthedogsafeatafriendshouseordidtheboylosethedogatafriendshouseandthusinalessfamiliarandpotentiallymoredangerouslandscapeIstherecontinuingcauseforworryornotThoseexamplesareextremelysimple.WhenalongandcomplexsentencereportinganddiscussingdetailedresultsandconclusionsopenswithItandcontainsacouplemoreinstancesofthatpronounaswellasatheyandathemdeterminingwhattheauthormeanscanbecomeabsolutelyimpossibleespeciallyifthatauthorisalsodealingwiththechallengeofwritinginalanguagenothisorherownandperhapsusedoneitwhenreferringtoapluralantecedentandtheyforasingularonebymistake.Inmostcasesfivepronounsaretoomanyforasentenceinanycasebutwhetheryouhavemanyoronlyonepronouninasentenceitisvitalthatyourreaderisabletoidentifytheantecedentsreadilyandwithcertainty.SometimesthegrammarcheckingfunctioninWordwillcatchanincorrectlyoroddlyusedpronounbutmuchlikethespellcheckfunctionthisisfarfromreliable.Soreadyoursentencesovercarefullyandwheneveryouencounterapronounaskyourselfifitsmeaningmightpossiblybeunclearnottoyoubuttoareaderwhocantknowwhatyouresayingunlessyouexpressyourmeaningeffectivelyandiftheresanydoubtuseanounornounphraseinstead.BecauseusingpronounstooextensivelycantendtodistancenotonlythereaderbutalsothewriterfrompreciselywhatheorsheissayinganalysingyourtextinthiswaycanactuallyhelpyouclarifyyourformsofexpressioninwaysthatreachfarbeyondpronounsmuchaswritingthemeaningofLatinabbreviationsoutinyourtextcan.Usingonethingforanotherisonlyasuccessfulpolicyifbothyouandyourreaderknowexactlywhatthereplacementrepresents.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 56PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityThepracticeofputtingyourselfintotheshoesofyourreaderandviewingyourownwritingfromasobjectiveaperspectiveasyoucanpossiblymanagecanbesurprisinglyenlighteningandincrediblyhelpful.Ifyoureabletoachievealittledistancefromyourworkyoullalsobeabletoreaditasyoumightreadthescholarlyworkofcolleaguesandwhilethiscanassistyouwithmanagingfarmorethanpronounsitwillalmostalwaysrevealproblematicusesofpronounsthatcontributetoanunprofessionalwrittenvoice.Iamreferringspecificallyheretotheuseinscholarlyproseofthefirst-personpluralpronounweandusandourintheotherdeclensions.WecanbeusedwithimpunityinacademicorscientificwritingifitrefersspecificallytotheauthorsandIisequallyacceptableforasingleauthor.InfactIwhenusedwithdiscretionisoftenpreferabletoathird-personcircumlocutionsuchasthepresentauthorandwemoreappropriatethansaythepresentinvestigators.ThetwoIandweshouldnotbemixedhoweverapapereitherhasoneormorethanoneauthorsoitseitherIorwenotoneinoneparagraphandtheotherinthenext.Wecanalsobeusedsuccessfullythoughwithcarewhenreferringtoresearchersorpractitionersasagroupsuchasweethnographersorweassurgeonsespeciallywhenyourworkrelatestomethodologyandself-awareness.Weshouldnotbeusedinscholarlywritinghoweverinageneralorfictionalsensethatimplicitlyincludesthereadersoreventhewholeofhumanity.Generalisingasanyresearcherknowsisadangerousbusinessandwhenyouincludeyourreadersinthatweyoualsousuallyunwittinglyimplythatyourreadersarethinkingexactlywhatyouare.Assumingthatyourreadersarethinkingasyouarecanbeoneofthemostcertainandinstantaneouswaysinwhichtoloseyourreaderssympathy.WecanobservethatWeseehereWenowknowthatWehumanbeingsdonotandsimilarphrasescanrapidlybecomeirritatingespeciallyiftheauthorhasnotprovidedPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 57PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytheresultsorexplanationtoshoreuptheclaim.Thejoboftheacademicorscientificauthoristoshowexplainpersuadeevendefendwhennecessarywithregardtohisorherdiscoveriesbutnevertoassumethatthereaderisalreadyconvincedortousethatassumptionasawayinwhichtodevelopanargumentorasasubstituteforscholarlyargumentation.WeobservedthatWesawWediscoveredthatwiththeWeapplyingtotheauthorsineachcaseandHumanparticipantsinthisstudydidnotallreportresultsandthereforepresentevidenceandadvanceanacademicorscientificargument.Whatyourreadersseeorthinkordiscovermayormaynotdosoandassumingevenunwittinglythatwhatsgoingoninyourmindisalsogoingoninthemindsofyourreadersoftenmeansignoringthepotentialformanydifferentresponsesandinterpretations.Sowhileitisgoodtoanticipatetheneedsofyourreadersthebestwaytomeetthoseneedsistorelyonwhatsgoingoninyourownmindanddoyourverybesttosharethatclearlyandthoughtfullyinyourwriting.Socheckyouruseofwecarefullyasyouproofreadandreviseyourpaperandiftheresnospecificandappropriateantecedentforitdeviseadifferentwaytoexpressyourthoughts.Youshouldalsobeavoidedinacademicandscientificprose.ThisisrarelyaproblemforauthorsaswetendstobebutsinceIusethesecond-personvoicesofrequentlyinthisGuidetofacilitateconciseexpressionoftheadviceImofferingyouasanacademicorscientificauthorworkingtowardpublicationIthoughtIbestmentionit.MypracticeinthisregardisagoodexamplethenofanticipatingtheperspectiveandneedsofreadersyetalsoaclassiccaseofdowhatIsaybutnotexactlywhatIdoinmostcontextsusingyousimplyestablishestoopersonalavoiceforformalacademicorscientificwriting.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 58PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityEventheuseofhesheandtheycanbefraughtwithdifficultiesparticularlybecauseoftheneedtoavoidgender-specificlanguage.Thematterisstraightforwardwhenspeakingofamaleorfemalesubjectbutwhenyourlanguageneedstobemoregeneralproblemscanarise.Somewriterswouldarguethattheythemandtheirareacceptablenon-gender-specificsubstitutesforthesingularformsheorshehimorherandhisorher.Howevertheythemandtheirarepluralsotheyarenotappropriateorcorrectwithreferencetosingularnounsandusingthemasthoughtheyarecanquicklybecomeextremelyconfusing.Sowhenyouusesomethinglikeapersonyouneedtouseasingularpronounwhenapersonconsiderstheideaheorshealsorealisesnotwhenapersonconsiderstheideatheyalsorealise.Finallyahumanbeingpersonparticipantintervieweemothermanteenagerorgirlisneveranitsodobesuretousehesheortheyorhimherorthemintheobjectivecasesandhisherandtheirinthepossessivewhenreferringtoaperson.Relativepronounsshouldbeusedsimilarlythemanwhodidthatortheparticipantwhoscoredhighestnotthemanthatdidthatortheparticipantthatscoredhighest.Suchcarefulusagewillnotonlyrenderyourwritingclearerandmorepreciseitwillalsokeepthehumanelementaliveinyourprosealongwithscholarlyformality.Avoidingtheuseofageneralisingweandayouthatstoodirectdoesnotmeanthatyoushouldremovethehumanelementfromyourproseandthereareavarietyofwaystoretainthiselement.Sometimeswhenreportingcomplexmethodsanddatawhileworkingwithintightwordlimitsanauthorcanletwordsthatassertthepresenceofhumanparticipantsinastudyfalltothewayside.Mostcommonisthetendencyforpatientsorparticipantssufferingfromaparticulardiseaseorailmenttobereducedthroughakindofshorthandtothediseaseorailment.WhilethissortoflanguageissometimesnecessarytoconveyresultsefficientlyitshouldbePARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 59PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityavoidedasmuchaspossibleandcertainlynotusedwhenfirstintroducingtheparticipantsinyourstudy.Somejournalshaveratherstrictguidelinesaboutreferringtoresearchparticipantssomeofthemevenfrowningupontheuseofsubjectsinsteadofindividualsorpeoplesodobesuretocheckthejournalguidelinesbeforemakingfinaldecisionsaboutsuchmatters.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkPRSTipTheproofreadersatPRSarewelleducatedinavarietyofdisciplinesandallofusareexpertsintheEnglishlanguage.WeknowhowascholarlypaperinEnglishshouldreadbecausewearescholarsandsomeofushavepublishedourownacademicorscientificwriting.Sotheresagreatdealwecandotohelpyoumakeyourscholarlyvoicejustwhatitshouldbebutitsessentialthatyoudoeverythingyoucantoensurethatyourvocabularygrammarandsyntaxareascorrectandclearaspossible.Rememberthatifaseasonedprofessionalproofreaderfamiliarwithacademicandscientificprosethespecificdisciplineandtheerrorscommonlyencounteredwhenworkingacrosslanguagesisntabletomakesenseofwhatyouretryingtosayitsverydifficulttoprovideassistance.Whenwereadpapersforourclientswestrikeupadialogueinmarginalcommentsandthisisagoodwayforclientstostartadialoguewithusaswell.Soifyourehavingtroublewithaparticularconstructionoraspecificsectioninyourpaperexplaintheproblemaswellasyoucaninacomment.IfyouretranslatingaquotedpassageletusknowitsyourtranslationandwellchecktheEnglishandimproveitifnecessary.Thissortofproactiveapproachwillhelpusdirectattentionwhereitismostneededandhelpyoumaximisetheeffectofthemoneyyouspendonprofessionalproofreading. 60PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitycHAPteR5PridaaasurAurayaeffivyJournalguidelinesvarygreatlywhenitcomestotheadvicetheyprovideaboutpresentingdataandreferringtosources.Insomecasesseparatesectionscontainingdetailedinstructionsaboutexactlyhowtolayouttablesandfiguresandhowtoformatcitationsandreferenceswillbeprovidedwhileinothersauthorswillsimplybeadvisedtoformattablesandfiguresinanappropriatemannerandwillbeluckytofindtwoorthreereferenceexamplestofollow.Tablesandfiguresdoseemtoreceivefairlygoodcoverageintheguidelinesofmostscholarlyjournalshoweverandgenerallyyouwillbeabletofindsomeindicationofthereferencingstylerequired.Soreadanythingandeverythingyoucanfindintheguidelinesabouttheseelementsofyourpaperpaycarefulattentiontoanymodelsprovidedbothappropriateandinappropriateconsultanymanualsorotherstyleguidesmentionedandtakeacloselookatpapersalreadypublishedbythejournaltoseehowreferencestablesandfiguresweresuccessfullyformatted.Whatyoulearncanbebothfollowedandusedtoinspireyourowndesignswhenconstructingyourreferencestablesandfigures.5.1tabFiuraohrRarhdaaguiiagPraiAlthoughtheadviceIshareinthissectionshouldnotbetakenasasubstituteforjournalguidelineswhenitcomestothelayoutoftablesandfiguresitstemsfromafamiliaritywiththeguidelinesofmanyjournalsandtheexperienceofencounteringmanytablesandfiguresthatpresentunfamiliardata.AswitheveryotheraspectPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 61PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityofyourpaperclarityaccuracyandprecisionareessentialandinthecaseoftablesandfiguresthereslittlespaceforexplanationsodatamustforthemostpartstandontheirownwithonlytheformatyoushapearoundthemtolendstructureandmeaning.Thismeansthattheformatofyourtablesandfiguresneedstobethoughtoutverycarefullythereneedstobeenoughspacebothtopresentandtoseparatealltheinformationyourtablesandfigurescontaininwaysthatfacilitateyourreadersunderstanding.Poorlylaidouttablesandfigurescaninsteadobscurethatunderstandingsoitsimportanttoanalyseyourtablesandfiguresasareaderwouldseekingtheinformationyoureprovidingandtheneditandreshapeuntilyourtablesandfiguresachievejustwhattheyshould.Somejournalswillinsistthattablesandfiguresonlybeusediftheyincludeorillustrateinformationnotpresentedelsewhereinthepaperandfrownonthosethatrepeatdatainanyway.Sothefirstconsiderationshouldbewhetheryouneedtablesandfigurestoshareyourresearchandresultseffectivelyandifsowhatexactlythosetablesandfiguresshouldcontain.Illustratingdevicesorconditionsdiscussedinapaperprovidinggraphsandlistsofdatathatcannotbeaccommodatedindetailinanarticleandhighlightingthemostsignificantaspectsoftheresultsofastudyareafewofmanyreasonstoprovidetablesandfiguresforyourreaders.Onceyouvedecidedthatyourpaperdoesrequiretablesandorfiguressomebasicpracticesandconcernsfoundintheguidelinesofmanyjournalsshouldbeconsidered.Fortablesforinstanceaskyourselfifyouwillyourequirelinesorrulestoseparatethematerialsomejournalsaskthatverticallinesbeavoidedothersthatrulesofallkindsbeavoidedandatablemaytakemorespaceonthepageifyouneedtoconstructitwithoutlines.ForfiguresthereisthematterofusingcolourornotsomejournalsonlyprintPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 62PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytablesinmonochromeblackandwhiteandincludefiguresincoloursolelyonlinewhileotherswillbehappytoprintyourfiguresincolourbuttheymaychargeasignificantamountforitsoyoullneedtodecidewhetherprintingthefiguresincolourisworththecost.Forbothtablesandfiguresconsidertheoverallsizeofeachitemintermsoftheprintedpageofthejournalandifyourtablesorfigureswillneedtobereducedtosuchadegreethattheymaynolongerbeclearorlegibleyoumayhavetopresenttheinformationinadifferentformatordividetheinformationyouvecompiledinonetableorfigureintotwoorthreetablesorfigures.Onlinepublicationisoftenthebestrouteforlargetablesandfiguresandcolourrarelyprovesaproblemwithonlinepublication.Rememberasyoureconstructingyourtablesandfiguresthatasageneralruleeachtableandfigureshouldbeabletostandalonewhetheritsprintedamidstthetextofyourpaperorpublishedseparatelyonline.ForthisreasonallabbreviationsbeyondthestandardonesforcommonmeasurescmHzmphNSDetc.willneedtobedefinedeitherinthetableorfigureitselforincloseassociationwithitandthisisthecaseevenifyouvealreadydefinedtheabbreviationsinyourpaperandinanyprecedingtablesorfigures.Youcanchoosetowriteeachtermoutinfullwithinthebodyofthetableorfigureorintroduceanddefinetheabbreviationsintheheadingortitleofatableorinthecaptionorlegendofafigureoryoucandefineanyabbreviationsusedinanoteatthebottomofthetableorfigure.Thislastapproachisusedfortablesmoreoftenthanforfiguresandtheabbreviationswithinatableareusuallyconnectedtothedefinitionsinthenoteviasuperscriptlowercaselettersbutnotalwayssodocheckthejournalguidelines.IfyoureinanydoubtaboutwhetheranabbreviationshouldbedefinedforyourreadersitsbesttodefineitsuchattentionisasignofconscientiousdocumentationandifPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 63PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitythejournaldeemsthedefinitionunnecessaryitcanalwaysberemoved.Besurethatthetermsyouuseinyourtablesandfiguresmatchthoseyouuseinthepaperitselfpreciselyandthattheabbreviationstakethesameformsinboththepaperandthetablesandfigures.Infactitsessentialtoensurethatallthedatapresentedintablesandfiguresareentirelyconsistentwithdatapresentedinthepaperandtheabstractaswell.Thisistosaythattheformatinwhichyoupresentsimilardatainbothplacesshouldbeidenticalandanyoverlappingdatashouldbeexactlythesameincontentaswellasformatinbothplaces.Rememberthatdatastandaloneinatableorfiguresotheyneedtobeperfectandshouldbecheckedmorethanoncebymorethanonepairofknowledgeableeyes.Evenasimpleerrorcannotonlyrendertheinformationincorrectitcanalsoaltertheoverallappearanceofthetableorfigureandsinceaneffectivevisualrepresentationofinformationispreciselythegoaloftablesandfiguresthiscanbedisastrous.AllnumbersinatableorfigurecanbewrittenasnumeralsandshouldbeaccuratelyformattedinkeepingwithEnglishconventionandorjournalguidelinesontheuseofnumbersinacademicorscientificproseseeSection4.4.1above.Journalguidelinesshouldalsobeconsultedtodetermineexactlyhowtoplaceandsubmityourtablesandfiguresinrelationtoyourpaper.Variationsaremyriadwhensubmittingtosomejournalsyoucansimplyplaceyourtablesandfigureswhereyoudhavethemlocatedinthepublishedversionotherswillwantalltablesandfiguresaddedattheendofthedocumentandonlyplacementnotese.g.InsertTable1hereandFigure3aboutherewithinthebodyofthepaper.AddedattheendofthedocumentcanmeaneitherbeforeorafterthereferencelistandforsomejournalsPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 64PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytablesshouldprecedefigureswhereasforothersitsjusttheopposite.Sometimesguidelineswillaskthattablesbeembeddedinortackedontotheendofthepaperbutthefiguressubmittedinseparatefileswithonlythefigurelegendsincludedinthepaperusuallyattheend.Thepointistonoteandcomplywithwhateverisrequireditsdisappointingtodiscoverthatguidelineswontletyouusetablesandfiguresquiteasyoudhopedbutbetterthatthanwritingthepaperwiththetablesandfiguresyouwantonlytohaveitrejectedbecauseofthemorinthebestscenariohavetocompletelyrewriteyourpaperwithdifferentfewerornotablesatall.Ifasetnumberorstyleorsizeoftablesandfiguresisabsolutelycentraltoyourpaperthenbesuretochooseajournalthatallowsit.Howevermanyorfewtablesandfiguresyouusebesuretolabeleachoneaccuratelyandtorefertoeachoftheminthebodyofyourpaperasyoureportanddiscussyourresults.Virtuallyalljournalguidelinesspecifythisandothersexpectitanditsalsoasimplecourtesytoyourreaderthatfacilitatesthatreadersunderstandingofyourpaperandyourtablesandfiguresinrelationtoit.Unnumberedormisnumberedfiguresandtablestowhichthereaderisnotaccuratelyandpreciselyreferredatanappropriatepointinthetextdefeattheirownpurposeandnegatesomeofthehardworkthatwentintomakingthembyleavingittothereadertosortouttherelationshipbetweenyourtextandyourtablesandfigures.Tablesandfiguresshouldalsobereferredtoinnumericalorderwhichmeansthattheyshouldbenumberedaccordingtotheorderinwhichtheyarementionedinthetextregardlessofwheretheyareactuallyplacedinrelationtothetext.ForclaritytheyshouldalsobereferredtobynumberwhenevermentionedwiththeusualformatbeingFigure1orTable2unlessofcoursethejournalguidelinesspecifyadifferentformatsuchasFig.1andPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk64 65PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitywhateverformatusedtorefertoatableorfigureshouldmatchthatusedintheheadingorcaptiontolabelthetableorfigureitself.IntheheadingcaptionforatableorfigureafullstopusuallyfollowsthenumberTable1.Demographiccharacteristicsofstudyparticipantsunlessthereareinstructionsintheguidelinestothecontrarycallingforacolonforinstanceafterthenumberinsteadofafullstop.ThetitleorheadingofatableisgenerallyplacedabovethetablewhereasfigurecaptionsorlegendsoftenappearbeneathfiguresbutguidelinesaswellasstylemanualsdifferonthisaswellsoagainreadingandfollowingtheguidelinesofthespecificjournalisessentialtosuccessseealsoSection1.2above.Finallyifyouareusinginyourfiguresanyimagesforwhichthecopyrightbelongstosomeoneotherthanyourselfyoullneedtoacknowledgethesourcesusuallyintherelevantfigurecaptionsandyoullalsoneedtoobtainpermissionstoreproducesuchimages.Althoughallpermissionsneednotbeobtaineduntilyourpaperisacceptedforpublicationinajournalitsagoodideatoindicatewhenyousubmityourpaperwhichfigureswillrequirepermissionsandfromwhichindividualsandinstitutionsthosepermissionswillneedtoberequestedaswellasnotinganypermissionsthatyouvealreadyobtained.Planningaheadwhenitcomestopermissionscanpreventdelaysandhelpspeedupthepublicationprocessbutremembertoothatpermissionstoreproduceimagesfromotherpublicationscanbecostlyandtheexpenseisusuallymetbytheauthorsoitsagoodideatoconsidercarefullywhetherreproducingimagesandothermaterialthatrequirepermissionsisreallynecessaryandworththecost.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 66PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality5.2labunlaRfrciaiaQuaiSomeofyouarenodoubtalreadyshudderingandaccuratereferencingcanbeachallengebutitneednotbeanightmare.ItdoesrequireasignificantinvestmentofbothtimeandcarefulattentionPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkPRSTipSomuchattentionispaidtonumericaldataintablesandimagesinfiguresthatthewordsappearingintablesandfiguressometimessufferneglect.Ifthewordsusedintablesandfiguresdonoteffectivelyclarifyandcategorisetheinformationpresentedthereadersunderstandingsuffersaswell.SowhenusingwordsinatableorfigureitsgoodtokeepthesebasicpracticesinmindUsestandardabbreviationsformeasuresanddefineallabbreviationsbeyondthoseforcommonmeasures.Usetermsandabbreviationsthatmatchexactlythoseusedforthesameconceptscategoriesandmeasuresinthepaperandinitsothertablesandfigures.Makesurethatallwordsarevisibleandlegibleandnotobscuredorcrowdedbyotherelementsofthetableorfigure.Donotallowawordtobesplitinappropriatelyontotwoseparatelinesuseawidercolumninstead.Usecapitalisationconsistentlythroughoutthetablesandfiguresinapaper.IfthetableorfigurewasoriginallypreparedinanotherlanguagetranslateallwordsintoaccurateEnglishifyourewritingforanEnglish-speakingaudienceallaspectsofyourpaperincludingyourtablesandfiguresshouldbeentirelylegibletothataudience. 67PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityhoweverandtheresearchinapaperliketheargumentistheauthorsownsoyouaretheonlyonewhocantrulyjudgewhenacitationofanygivensourceisappropriate.Inmanycasesyouarealsotheonlyoneamongyourfirstreadersincludingproofreadersstudentassistantscolleaguesandthatall-importantjournaleditorwhohasaccesstothecompletebibliographicalinformationforyourreferences.Itisyourresponsibilityasanacademicorscientificauthortorecordyourreferenceswithabsoluteintegrityandprecisionandgettingthemrightiswellworththeeffortnotonlybecausesoundreferencesareaqualityofsoundscholarshipbutalsobecausetheconsequencescanbeunpleasantforboththeauthorandthejournalifthebibliographicaldetailsinapaperandworseyettheintellectualuseofsourcesaremisrepresentedorsimplywrong.Soyoushouldbeginbyrecordingyoursourcesandeveryaspectoftheuseyoumakeofthemaccuratelyandthoroughly.Thisisaprocessbestachievedbykeepingdetailedaccurateandup-to-daterecordsduringthedesignresearchandtrialstagesofyourstudy.Suchrecordswillgiveyoutherawmaterialyouneedtobuildyourreferencelistandeffectivelyconnectyourin-textcitationstothesourcesthelistincludes.Journalguidelinesshouldthenbereadwithextremecarepayingcloseattentiontoallexamplesprovidedtodetermineexactlywhatstyleofreferencingyoushoulduse.Anymanualsorstyleguidesrecommendedbytheguidelinesshouldalsobeconsultedespeciallyifyoufindyourselfdealingwithanunusualsourceoroneforwhichyoucanfindinthejournalguidelinesneitheranexamplenorpreciseinstructionsastohowtorecordit.Finallyyouwillneedtodoyourbesttoprovidealltheinformationnecessaryinthecorrectorderformatandpositionandcheckitallwiththeutmostcareandideallymorethanoncewithmorethanonesetofeyesforaccuracyandconsistencyofspellingdatesquotationscapitalisationpunctuationfontsabbreviationsandsoon.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 68PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitySoyesgoodreferencingtakesalotofworkbutifyoureluckyenoughtohaveacapablegraduatestudentwhocouldusealittleextracashhelpingyousortoutthedetailsofyourreferencesandcitationscanbeanexcellentwayforastudenttolearnaboutthenitty-grittyofpublishinginanacademicorscientificjournal.Thefinalresponsibilitylieswiththeauthorhoweverandthesectionsbelowsuggestsomepracticesandmethodsthatmayprovehelpful.5.2.1In-TextCitationsandQuotationsWhereandHowToAcknowledgeSourcesAlthoughreferencingstylesvaryconsiderablyamongstylemanualsandjournalguidelinesandanyrequiredvariationsshouldalwaysbefollowedtothelettertherearethreebasicmethodsofreferringtosourcesinthebodyofanacademicorscientificpaperauthor-datecitationswhichtendtobeusedinthephysicalnaturalandsocialsciencesalthoughtheModernLanguageAssociationstylesometimesusedinthehumanitiesvariesthisslightlybynotusingadatenumericalcitationsfrequentlythereferencingchoiceforpapersinthemedicalandbiologicalsciencesandcitationscontainedineitherfootnotesorendnotespreferredbymanyscholarsworkinginthehumanities.ThefirsttwomethodsarediscussedinthissectionandthethirdinSection5.2.2below.Inallthreecasesthebasicprincipleofwhentoprovideareferenceorcitationremainsthesamewheneveryouusetheideasormethodsorresultsorwordsofanotherauthoryoushouldprovideareferencetothatauthorsworkbutexactlywheretoplacethecitationvaries.Ifforinstanceyourediscussinganauthorsworkorusinghisorherideasthroughoutasentencethentheendofthesentenceisusuallythebestplaceforthereference.IfyouremakinguseofasourcePARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 69PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitythroughoutawholeparagraphthenbesuretoprovidethereferencewiththesentenceinwhichyoufirstbeginreferringtothesourceratherthanwaitinguntiltheendoftheparagraphalthoughitsfinetoincludeacitationattheendoftheparagraphaswellandgoodtootoincludeacitationwheneveryoufeelitmightbeappropriatetoacknowledgetheauthoragaininthemidstoftheparagraph.Certainlyifyourereferringtomorethanonesourcebythesameauthoryoushouldprovideareferencetoeachsourcewhereverrelevant.Ifonlypartofasentencemakesuseofaparticularsourcethenthecitationtothatsourceshouldcomeimmediatelyaftertherelevantmaterialinthesentencesothatitsclearexactlywhatpartofyourworkisdependentonthatsource.Ifpartofthesentencemakesuseofonesourceandthenextpartborrowsfromanothersourcethenprovidetwocitationswiththeappropriatesourcecitedaftertherelevantinformationineachcase.Youcanalsoprovidethesetwocitationsormoreifnecessarytogetherattheendofthesentencealthoughthisismostappropriateifthesentenceasawholemakesuseofbothsourcesafewguidelinescallforallcitationstobeclusteredattheendofsentencesorparagraphs.Generallyspeakinghoweverwhenyouquoteanauthordirectlyitsessentialthatyouprovideacitationatonceandincludewithitthenumberofthepageonwhichthewordsyouvequotedcanbefound.Inanauthor-datesystemofreferencingthelastnameornamesoftheauthororauthorsshouldbeprovidedalongwiththepublicationdateofthesource.ThiscanbedoneentirelyinparenthesesThestudySmith2010showedorbymentioningtheauthorsnameinthemaintextandincludingthedateinparenthesesSmithsstudy2010showed.IfyouprovidetwoormorereferencestoworksbythesameauthorwithinasinglesetofparenthesesorsquarebracketsiftheguidelinescallfortheminsteadthedatesshouldbearrangedchronologicallyandseparatedbycommasSmith20102012PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 70PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality2013ormorerarelytheotherwayaroundSmith201320122010butnotSmith201220102013andtheorderusedinthein-textcitationsshouldmatchthatusedinthereferencelistseeSection5.2.3.Ifreferencestodifferentauthorsareprovidedwithinasinglesetofparenthesesthenthecitationsshouldbeseparatedbysemi-colonsandarrangedeitheralphabeticallybyauthornamematchingtheirorderinthereferencelistorchronologicallybydateorusingacombinationofbothdependingonthereferencingstyle.InAPAstyleforinstancethiswouldbethecorrectformatJones2013McGraw2003McGrawHill2001Smith20102012.Chicagoreferencingontheotherhandleavestheorderuptotheauthorwhetheralphabeticalorchronologicalbutwhicheverorderisusedinwhicheverstylespecificjournalguidelinesshouldbeaccommodatedandthepatterndecideduponshouldbeusedconsistentlythroughoutthepaper.Therearevariousotherdifferencesbetweenindividualreferencingstyles.SomeuseacommabetweentheauthorsnameandthedateasIhaveintheprecedingparagraphSmith2010andsomedonotSmith2010.SomeuseanampersandwhileothersuseandbetweenauthornamesforsourceswithmorethanoneauthorbutasageneralruleandshouldbeusedinthemaintextMcGrawandHill2003arguethatevenifanampersandisusedparentheticallyMcGrawHill2003.Theuseofetal.inin-textcitationsalsovariesfromstyletostyleinChicagoandHarvardreferencingforinstanceetal.shouldbeusedafterthefirstauthorsnameifthesourcehasfourormoreauthorsthoughHarvardstylealsoallowstheuseofetal.whenasourcehasonlythreeauthors.Chicagostyleusesafullstopafteretal.Thompsonetal.2008whereasHarvardreferencingdoesnotThompsonetal2008.Sometimesetal.shouldappearinitalicfontbutthisisusuallyarequirementofspecificjournals.InAPAstyleetal.isfollowedbyaPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 71PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityfullstopanditalicsarenotrequiredbutwhentouseetal.isalittlemorecomplicated.IfasourcehasthreetofiveauthorsallauthorsshouldbelistedforthefirstcitationinapaperThompsonSmithJonesJohnson2008butallsubsequentin-textreferencesshouldusethefirstauthorsnamefollowedbyetal.Thompsonetal.2008sospecialcareneedstobetakentoensurethateachcitationappearsinthecorrectformat.ForsixormoreauthorsAPAstyleusesetal.afterthefirstauthorsnameinallreferencestothesourceincludingthefirstoneontheuseofetal.seealsoSection4.2.Ifyoufindthatyouuseinyourpapertwoormoresourceswiththesamedateandbythesameauthororauthorsyoullneedtoaddalowercaselettertoeachdateregardlessofwhichauthor-datereferencingsystemyoureusingSmith2010a2010bThompsonetal.2008a.Youwillneedtoaddtheseletterstothedatesofthesamesourcesinyourreferencelistaswellsothatyourin-textreferencessuccessfullyleadyourreaderstotherightsourceineverycase.Infacteverythingabouttheauthoranddateinformationprovidedinin-textcitationswithinapapermustcorrespondexactlytothesameinformationintheaccompanyingreferencelistsoauthornamesanddatesshouldbecarefullycomparedbetweenthepaperandlisttoensureabsoluteaccuracy.Finallyyourparentheticalcitationsshouldalsobeappropriatelypositionedinrelationtothepunctuationofyoursentencesgenerallybeforeanypunctuationmarkse.g.AccordingtoSmith2010atherewasandjustasarecentstudyhasshownSmith2012.InanumericalsystemofreferencingsuchasthatrequiredbyVancouverstyleandtheguidelinesofanumberofjournalsthatcallforvariationsontheVancouversystemeachsourceusedisassignedanArabicrarelyaRomannumeralandthatsamenumberisusedeverytimethesamesourceiscitedinapaper.ThesourcesPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 72PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityarenumberedaccordingtotheorderinwhichtheyarereferredtointhepapersothefirstsourcecitedwillbenumber1thesecondnumber2andsoon.Themethodfornumberinganyreferencesthatappearintablesandfiguresdiffersbetweenguidelinessomewouldhavesuchreferencesnumberedafterallthoseinthepaperitselfwhileothersaskthatreferencesinatableorfigurebenumberedaccordingtowherethetableorfigureismentionedinthepaper.Itsessentialtonumbersourcescorrectlybecauseerrorscanmeanhavingtochangethenumbersofallsourcescitedafteramisnumberedoneinboththepaperandthereferencelist.UsingnumbersforcitationsdoesntmeanthatauthornamesanddatescannotbeprovidedifyouwantorneedthisinformationinyourpaperbutonlythattheydontneedtobeandthatasourcesnumbermustappearinthetextwhetheryouprovideadditionalinformationornotIn2003McGrawandHillstudiedthisphenomenon.1VancouverstylesetsthereferencenumbersinsideparenthesesorwhatitcallsroundbracketsasIvedoneintheexampleaboveorusesasuperscriptfontforthemMcGrawandHill1arguethat.Howeversomejournalguidelineswillcallforsquarebracketsinstead1.Groupsofcitationscanbegatheredtogetherinanumericalreferencingstylemuchastheyareinanauthor-datesystemsimplybylistingthenumbersofallrelevantsourcesseparatedbycommas125812.Ifthreeormoreconsecutivenumbersneedtobelistedahyphenshouldbeusedbetweenthefirstandlastnumbers1-35-9.InVancouverreferencingnospacesareusedbetweenthenumbersbutsomejournalswillprovideexamplesthatdousespacessobesuretocheckthejournalguidelinesforpreciseinstructions.Aswithanauthor-datereferencingstyleVancouver-stylecitationsshouldbeappropriatelypositionedtoindicatewithaccuracyyouruseofsourcesinyourtextbutstandardplacementinrelationtopunctuationcallsforthereferencenumberstofollowfullPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 73PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitystopsandcommasAccordingtoMcGrawandHill1andprecedecolonsandsemi-colonsThefollowingcategoriesareconsideredinMcGrawandHill1.Againhoweverjournalguidelinessometimescallforslightlydifferentplacementbeforecommasandfullstopsforexamplesoalwayscheckthoseguidelines.Whetheryoureusinganauthor-dateoranumericalreferencingstyleforyourin-textcitationsyouwillneedtoprovideapagenumberorpagenumberswhenyouquotedirectlyfromasource.TheformatforrecordingpagenumbersvariesfromstyletostyleAPASmith2010p.222andformultiplepagesSmith2010pp.222-223ChicagoSmith2010222andformultiplepagesSmith2010222223HarvardSmith2010p.222andformultiplepagesSmith2010pp.222-223VancouverinparenthesesorsquarebracketsSmith1p222andformultiplepagesSmith1pp222-223VancouverinsuperscriptfontSmith1p222andformultiplepagesSmith1pp222-223MLAModernLanguageAssociationwhichcitespagenumbersevenwhenthereisnodirectquotationSmith222andformultiplepagesSmith222-223NoticethatthepunctuationbetweenpagenumbersisusuallyahyphenbutsometimesinthecaseofChicagoreferencingaboveforinstanceandalsointhereferenceexamplesprovidedbysomejournalsalongerdashisusedeitherwaythereshouldbenospaceoneithersideofthehyphenordash.Beyondthatspacingvariesbetweenstylesandsodoestheuseofafullstopafterp.orpp.Pagerangescanbecondensedinformatpp.222-23orpp.222-3insteadPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 74PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityofpp.222-223butonlyiftheguidelinesyourefollowingclearlyindicatethatthisispermittedifindoubtordecidingforyourselfusethefullnumberonbothsidesofthehyphenordash.IfthesourceyourequotingdoesnothavepagenumbersmanyonlinesourcesforinstancedonottrytobeaspreciseaspossibleaboutthelocationofthewordsyouquotesoyourreadercanfindthepassageSmith2007Discussionsectionpara.4isagoodAPAexample.Howeversomestylesandguidelineswillaskthatauthorsdonotprovideparagraphnumbersunlesstheparagraphsarealreadynumberedinthesource.ItwasoncethecasethatdoublequotationmarkswereseenasmoreAmericanandsingleonesasmoreBritishbutbothkindsareusedfordirectquotationinbothformsofEnglishnowandinterestinglyitisHarvardreferencingthatcallsforsinglequotationmarksondirectquotationsfromsourcesreservingdoublequotationmarksfordirectspeech.ManyjournalguidelinesandsomestylemanualswillhavelittleornothingtosayonthematterbutthequotationexamplestheyprovidewillsometimeshelpyoudeterminewhichtypeofmarkstousebothAPAandVancouverstylesforinstanceshowexamplesusingdoublequotationmarks.Articlesalreadypublishedbyajournalwillalsoprovideexamplestoconsultbutyouwilloftenfindthatonepaperusesonekindandoneanother.Thismeansthateitherisacceptabletothejournalsoyouwillneedtochoosewhichtousewiththekeybeingtousethesametypeofquotationmarkswheneveryouarequotingasourcedirectly.Itisalsoagoodideatousetheothertypeofquotationmarkswhenyouarenotquotingbutusingquotationmarksonlytoemphasisewordsandphrasesdoublequotationmarksfordirectquotationsforexampleandsingleonesforemphasisorviceversa.Inthiswayyoumakeitcleartoyourreadersexactlywhenyouarequotingfromasourceandwhenyouarenot.InthisguideforinstanceletterswordsPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 75PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityphrasesandlongerexamplesoftheformsImdiscussingareenclosedinsinglequotationmarksemphasisbutdirectquotationsfromothersourcesareenclosedindoublequotationmarksquotation.Emphasisontermsandphrasescanalsobeachievedthroughtheuseofitalicfontandsomejournalguidelinesexpresspreferencesinthisregardbutitalicsshouldnotbeusedasanindicationofquotationthatiseveryquotedwordneednotbeinitalics.Italicsshouldonlybeusedinquotationsfortwospecificreasonsforonetheyareusedifitalicfontisalreadyoncertainwordsinthequotationforemphasisperhapsoronforeignvocabularyinwhichcaseincludingthemonthesamewordsissimplyquotingaccurately.Sometimesespeciallyininformalpublicationsthesesanddissertationsforexampleunderliningorunderscoringwillappearinsteadofitalicssincethisissimplyaformofemphasisusedwhentheitalicfontisnotavailableunderliningcanberepresentedinquotationbyeitherunderliningoritalics.ItalicscanalsobeusedinquotationsifyouwishtoaddyourownemphasistosomeofthequotedwordsbutifyouchoosetodothisyouneedtoacknowledgetheitalicsasyourownSmithexplainsthathisresultsdidnotrevealthetrendofrapiddeteriorationnotedinpreviousstudies2010p.222italicsmyown.Punctuationpracticeswithregardtoquotationsdifferamongstylesandguidelineswithsomesystemsforinstanceplacingthefullstoporcommaassociatedwithyourownsentencewithintheclosingquotationmarknotedinpreviousstudies.andothersplacingitoutsidenotedinpreviousstudies..InthisGuideIvesetfullstopsandcommasinsidequotationmarks.Ifaparentheticalreferencefollowsaquotationtheclosingpunctuationshouldalwayscomeafterthereference.Colonssemi-colonsquestionmarksandexclamationsPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 76PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityshouldbeaddedaftertheclosingquotationmarkunlesstheyarepresentinthesourceyourequotinginwhichcasetheyshouldbeincludedwithinthequotation.Minorchangesinpunctuationandcapitalisationcanbemadetoaquotationifthechangesarenecessarytomakethequotationworkeffectivelywithinthegrammarandstructureofyourownsentence.SoforexampleifyourequotingawholesentenceyoucanchangetheinitialcapitaltoalowercaseletterAccordingtoSmith2010theresultsdidnotrevealthetrendofrapiddeteriorationnotedinpreviousstudiesp.222wherethefirstTheboreanuppercaseTintheoriginal.Theseminorchangesdonotrequiretheuseofsquarebrackets.Beyondminorchangesinpunctuationandcapitalisationinquotationsanyquotedmaterialshouldbeprovidedinyourpaperintheexactsameformatasitappearsinthesource.WhenyouneedtoaddsomethingsignificanttoaquotedpassagetomakeitworkinyourownsentenceyoushouldusesquarebracketsaroundtheaddedmaterialSmith2010p.222wassurprisedthathisresultsdidnotrevealthetrendofrapiddeteriorationbecausethistrendhadbeennotedinpreviousstudies.AnellipsisontheotherhandshouldbeusedwhenyoudeletewordsfromthemiddleofaquotationSmith2010p.222wassurprisedthathisresultsdidnotrevealthetrendnotedinpreviousstudies.AnellipsisisnotrequiredhoweveratthebeginningorendofaquotationIuseellipsesinthosepositionsinsomeexamplesnotquotationsinthisGuidesimplytoclarifyrelevantformats.Itisalwaysbesttochangeaslittleaspossibleinaquotationafterallyourepresumablyquotingthewordsofanotherauthorbecausetheyserveyourpresentpurpose.Longquotations40wordsormoreisacommonguidelinearebestindentedasblockquotationsthesestartonanewlinearenoticeablyindentedontheleft-handsideanddonotrequirequotationmarks.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 77PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAllquotationsshouldbeintroducedanddiscussedclearlyandaccurately.Beyondtheformattingtechniquesabovewhichwillletyourreadersknowthataquotationisaquotationidentifyingtheauthororspeakerisoftenhelpfulandthequotedmaterialshoulddefinitelybelogicallyconnectedtotheargumentofyourpaper.Withtheexceptionofquotationsthatcontainpithyproverbialsayingsthatneatlysumupconceptsorpassagesaddressingtheveryissueswithwhichyouaredealinginthesameorsimilarlanguagequotationsarentreallyabletomoveanargumentontheirowntheycandoalotbuttheyneedtobeusedthoughtfullyandtheirfunctioninyourpapershouldalwaysbeclear.Yourreadersmaynotbemakingthesameconnectionsyouaresothoseconnectionsneedtobeexplained.Alwaysuseaquotationinawaythatmakesitabsolutelyclearexactlyhowitrelatestoyourpresentargumentperhapsanalyseitinsomedetailinrelationtoyourownthoughtsorevidenceanddefinitelyexplainanyterminologyorconceptsusedinitifyoudonotuseandexplainthesamelanguageandterminologyinyourowntext.Anauthorquotestomakehisorherevidenceandargumentsmoreinterestingmorestrikingandmorepersuasivebutaquotationcannotachievethisifyoudonotexplainforyourreadersyourthoughtsaboutaquotedpassageandhowbothitandthosethoughtsfitintoyourargument.5.2.2FootnotesandEndnotesDoYouNeedThemFootnotesorendnotessometimesbothincombinationwereoncestaplesofascholarlypaperbuttheyplayamuchsmallerpartinacademicandscientificpaperstodayandmanyjournalswillaskthattheybekepttoaminimumoravoidedaltogether.ThosejournalsthatdoallownoteswillusuallyspecifywhichtheypreferfootnotesatthebottomofthepagesorendnotesattheendofthedocumentandmanywillaskthateitherkindofnotesberestrictedtoadditionalPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 78informationandnotusedforreferencing.Thisisbecausemanyjournalsnowuseauthor-dateornumericalreferencingstylesandreferencingviafootnotesorendnotesisadifferentstylealtogetheronealmostexclusivelyrestrictedtothehumanitieslikelybecauseofitscapacityforaccommodatingawidevarietyofsourcesthattendstobeusedinbooksmorethaninjournals.Footnotesorendnotessometimesbothincombinationwereoncestaplesofascholarlypaperbuttheyplayamuchsmallerpartinacademicandscientificpaperstodayandmanyjournalswillaskthattheybekepttoaminimumoravoidedaltogether.Thosejournalsthatdoallownoteswillusuallyspecifywhichtheypreferfootnotesatthebottomofthepagesorendnotesattheendofthedocumentandmanywillaskthateitherkindofnotesberestrictedtoadditionalinformationandnotusedforreferencing.Thisisbecausemanyjournalsnowuseauthor-dateornumericalreferencingstylesandreferencingviafootnotesorendnotesisadifferentstylealtogetheronealmostexclusivelyrestrictedtothehumanitieslikelybecauseofitscapacityforaccommodatingawidevarietyofsourcesthattendstobeusedinbooksmorethaninjournals.Whenyoureusinganauthor-dateornumericalin-textreferencingstylefootnotesandendnotesshouldnotbeusedexclusivelyforreferencingorforprovidingfullbibliographicalinformationaboutsources.Thisdoesnotmeanhoweverthatyoucantusecitationsinyournotesonthecontraryyoushouldtreatnotesjustlikeanyotherpartofyourtextwritingandpunctuatingthemasfullsentencesandprovidingthesamekindofshortreferencesyouuseinyourtextseethefootnotehereforanexample.2Yournoteshavetodomorethansimplyprovidereferenceshowevertheyhavetoaddinformationsuchasdetailsalternativeapproachesadditionalevidenceandtheliketothemaindiscussion.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk2ThemostinterestingaspectofSmithsresearchfrommyperspectiveisthathisresultsdidnotrevealthetrendofrapiddeteriorationnotedinpreviousstudies2010p.222. 79PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityWhenyoureusinganin-notestyleofreferencingontheotherhandfootnotesandendnotescanexistfornootherreasonthantoprovidereferences.Inthisreferencingsystemthenotesgenerallyprovidecompletebibliographicalinformationwhenasourceisfirstcitedasfootnotes156inthisGuidedoseeSections4.36.2.17.3.3andashorterversionofthereferenceusuallytheauthorslastnameandashortenedtitleforallsubsequentcitationsofthesamesource.UsingtheChicagostyleofreferencingwithinnotesasanexamplethecitationswouldappearinthisformatFullfootnoteendnotereferencewithpagenumberKathrynKerby-FultonMaidieHilmoandLindaOlsonOpeningUpMiddleEnglishManuscriptsLiteraryandVisualApproachesIthacaNYCornellUniversityPress2012318.SubsequentfootnoteendnotereferencewithpagenumberKerby-FultonHilmoandOlsonOpeningUpMiddleEnglishManuscripts318.WiththisstyleofreferencingareferencelistisntstrictlynecessarybecauseallthebibliographicalinformationrequiredtofindsourceshasalreadybeenprovidedinthenotesbutabibliographyissometimesincludedseeSection5.2.3.Althoughtheprimaryfunctionoffootnotesorendnotesinanin-notereferencingstyleistoprovidecitationsandbibliographicalinformationonsourcesadditionalmaterialofallkindscanalsobeincludedinthenotesmakingthemausefulsiteforcomparingandcontrastingtheoriesandevidenceandresultsandcreatingakindofsecondarydialoguewithinthediscussionofapaper.Howevermanypublishersnowviewsuchnotesasclutteronthepageandoftenrelegatethemasendnotestotheendofanarticleorchapterorbookinordertoavoidwhatisseenasanunattractiveproblem.UnfortunatelynotesPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 80tendtobereadlessoftenwhentheyappearattheendofadocumentratherthanasfootnotesoneachpagesothisfactshouldbeconsideredwhendecidingwhethertoincludenotesinyourpaperornotregardlessofwhichreferencingsystemyoureusing.Checkthejournalguidelinescomplywithanyrequirementsandasageneralruleformodernpublicationusenotesaslittleaspossiblethatisonlywhenyouneedtodoso.Whenyoudousenotesrememberthattheyshouldbewritteninfullsentencesandcorrectlypunctuatedfootnotesandendnotesarenottheplaceforpoint-forminformationorEnglishthatisinformalorshorthand.NotenumbersgenerallytaketheformofsuperscriptArabicnumeralsasIveusedforthefootnotesinthisGuideonlyveryrarelyareRomannumeralsusedplacedwheretheyaremostrelevantinthetextbutsomejournalsaskthatnotenumbersbeenclosedinsquarebrackets1orparentheses1.Likenumericalreferencestheyusuallyfollowfullstopsandcommas3andprecedecolonsandsemi-colons4howevermostjournalsthatallownoteswillprovidesomeguidanceonhowtousethemsoalwaysconsultandfollowtheguidelines.ThefontusedinfootnotesandendnotesshouldbethesameasthefontusedinthemainpaperalthoughtheautomaticnotefunctioninaprogrammesuchasWordwilloftenuseadifferentonesodowatchforthisandadjustthefontifnecessarybutthetextinnotescanbealittlesmallerthanthetextinthemaindocumenta10-pointinsteadof12-pointfontforinstancesolongasthetextremainsclearandlegibleinrelationtothesizeofthemaintextandcomplieswithanyfontsizerequirementsprovidedbythejournal.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk3Thisexampleshowshowtoplaceafootnotenumberinrelationtoacommaorfullstop.4Thisexampleshowshowtoplaceafootnotenumberinrelationtoasemi-colonorcolon. 81PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality5.2.3ReferenceListsandBibliographiesNigglingDetailsCompilingandrecordingsourcesinareferencelistorlistofworkscitedinMLAstyleorbibliographyismorethansimplyattendingtonigglingdetailsofcourseitsabigjobandconstitutesasignificantpartofanacademicorscientificpaperbuttheprocesscancertainlygiveanauthortheimpressionofdrowninginnigglingdetails.Assoonastherulesofanyparticularreferencingstyleorsetofguidelinesbegintosinkinallowingthebeleagueredcompilertosurfaceforairanexceptionpopsupandtherearealwaysexceptionssourcesofakindthatjustisntmentionedintheguidelinesyoureusingoruniquesourcesthatseemtobelonginmorethanoneofthereferencecategoriesyouretryingtofolloworsimplydontfitanyoftherulesprovided.SocompilingaperfectlistofsourceswhetheryoucallitReferencesorWorksCitedorBibliographycanbeachallengeasmuchofpatienceasprecisionandasdullataskasmanyfinditatouchofimaginationneverhurtsasyouwrestlethemanymultimediaresourcesthattendtoinformtodaysacademicandscientificarticlesintowhatremainsaverytraditionalformofacknowledgingandsharingscholarlysources.Beingbothaccurateandthoroughisasimportanttodayasitwas100yearsagowithoutallthecorrectinformationaccuratelyrecordedyouneitheradequatelynorrespectfullyacknowledgetheworkofotherscholarsandyoualsomakeitdifficultforyourreaderstofindyoursources.Todaytheeffectofareferencelistforgoodorillisimmediateyourpaperandsourcesappearonlineinmanycasesbeforetheyeverseeprintandimmediatelyenteracomplexwebofcrossreferencesonwhichscholarsrelyforavarietyofreasonsfromreviewsofliteraturetoassessmentsofjournals.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 82PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityReferencingstylesandguidelinesdiffersomarkedlyattimesandinsuchtinydetailsatothersthatgeneraladvicebeyondamantrachantingprecisionprecisionprecisionconsistencyconsistencyconsistencyinyourearcanonlybesohelpful.TherearesomegeneraltrendsanddistinctionsthatareworthknowinghoweverabibliographyforinstanceisusuallyarrangedalphabeticallybythelastnamesofauthorsforhelpwiththedetailsofalphabeticalordermoststylemanualstheAPAManualisagoodexamplewillprovideinstructionsandexamplesandabibliographycancontainnotjustallthesourcesyouactuallyciteinyourpaperbutalsoanysourcesthatyoudontdirectlyciteinyourpaperbutthatnonethelessinfluencedyourthinkingasyoudidyourresearchanddraftedyourarticle.Alistofreferencesorworkscitedontheotherhandincludesonlythesourcesallofthemthatyouciteinyourpaper.Ifyoureusinganauthor-datestyleofcitationyourreferencelistwillbearrangedalphabeticallybyauthorslastnamesjustasabibliographyisbutwhileabibliographyusuallyincludesthepublicationdateneartheendofareferenceinanauthor-datesystemthedateofasourcewillfollowimmediatelyaftertheauthornamesinthelistbecausedatesarepartofthewayinwhichreaderswillfindandidentifysources.Datesshouldbekeptinmindwhilelistingreferencesinbothsystemshoweversincetheydeterminetheorderinwhichsourcesbythesameauthorsshouldbelistedsomesystemsarrangesuchitemswiththeearliestpublicationfirstmovingforwardintimetothelatestwhileotherswillhaveyoulistthemostrecentpublicationfirstwithothersfollowinginreversechronologicalorder.Fornumericalreferencingstylesneitherauthornamesnordatesareusedtoarrangethesourcesinsteaditemsarelistedinthereferencelistinnumericalorderthesameorderinwhichtheyrecitedinthepaperbecauseinthiscaseitisthenumberofasourcethatallowsyourreaderstofindandidentifyit.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 83PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityThespacingandindentationofbibliographiesandreferencelistsvaryconsiderablyaswell.Therelevantstylemanualorjournalguidelineswillprovidedetailsbutasageneralrulemaintainingthelinespacingdoubleforinstanceyouveusedinthepaperitselfisagoodpolicyandusingindentationandorspacingtoseparateyourreferencesclearlyandimprovetheirlegibilityisgoodpractice.Anumberofstandardabbreviationsareusedinreferencelistsandbibliographiespp.Ed.ed.edn.Vol.No.andthetwo-letterabbreviationsforAmericanstatesarecommonexamplesbutthesetoovarybetweenreferencingstylesandsomejournalswillencouragetheuseoffurtherabbreviationssuchasthestandardabbreviationsforjournaltitleswhichcanbefoundinvariousplacesonlinetheNLMCatalogofJournalsReferencedintheNCBIDatabasesisaneasy-to-useexample.Thebibliographicalinformationinreferencelistsandbibliographiesalsodiffersbetweenstylesintheformatofpagenumberrangese.g.222-4vs.222-24vs.222-224andintheuseofpunctuationcapitalisationandfontsonjournalvolumenumbersforinstanceAPAstyleusesitalicfontwhereastheguidelinesforthemedicaljournalBMCPublicHealthcallforboldfontonvolumenumbers.AsatooltohelpyoutakecarefulnoteofthemanyelementsthatvaryfromstyletostyleImprovidingherealistofthesamesourceachapterwithinaneditedbookrecordedinthebibliographyreferencesworkscitedformatsrequiredbyeightdifferentstylesChicagoBibliographyin-noteHardmanPhillipa.PresentingtheTextPictorialTraditioninFifteenth-CenturyManuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictureseditedbyWilliamK.FinleyandJosephRosenblum37-72.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress2003.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 84PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityMLAauthor-pageorauthor-shorttitle-pageifnecessaryHardmanPhillipa.PresentingtheTextPictorialTraditioninFifteenth-CenturyManuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.ChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictures.Ed.WilliamK.FinleyandJosephRosenblum.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress2003.37-72.Print.Vancouvernumerical1.HardmanP.Presentingthetextpictorialtraditioninfifteenth-centurymanuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InFinleyWKRosenblumJeditors.ChaucerillustratedFivehundredyearsoftheCanterburyTalesinpictures.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress2003.Pp.37-72.AmericanMedicalAssociationAMAnumerical1.HardmanP.Presentingthetextpictorialtraditioninfifteenth-centurymanuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InFinleyWKRosenblumJeds.ChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictures.NewCastleDeOakKnollPress200337-72.BMCPublicHealthnumerical1.HardmanPPrihxpicriaraiiififh-curymaucripfhCanterburyTales.InChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictures.EditedbyFinleyWKRosenblumJ.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress200337-72.APAauthor-dateHardmanP.2003.PresentingthetextPictorialtraditioninfifteenth-centurymanuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InW.K.FinleyJ.RosenblumEds.ChaucerillustratedFivehundredyearsoftheCanterburyTalesinpicturespp.37-72.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress.ChicagoReferenceListauthor-dateHardmanPhillipa.2003.PresentingtheTextPictorialTraditioninFifteenth-CenturyManuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictureseditedbyWilliamK.FinleyandJosephRosenblum37-72.NewCastleDEOakKnollPress.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 85PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityHarvardauthor-dateHardmanP.2003PresentingthetextPictorialtraditioninfifteenth-centurymanuscriptsoftheCanterburyTales.InFinleyW.K.RosenblumJ.eds.ChaucerIllustratedFiveHundredYearsoftheCanterburyTalesinPictures.NewCastleDEOakKnollPresspp.37-72.AcloseexaminationoftheseexamplesrevealsnotonlymanyofthedifferencesinformattingandarrangementusedbyaselectionofcommonstylesbutalsoandequallyimportantlytheconsistencywithwhichalleightstylesrecordthesamedetailsaboutthesourcedespitethevariationswithMLAstylecallingforthemediumofpublicationprintinthiscaseaswell.Itisessentialthatyouprovidecompletebibliographicalinformationofthissortforeachandeverysourceinyourlistsoacarefulcheckthroughallyourreferencesisnecessaryoncetheyretypedin.Youshouldalsodouble-checkeachreferenceagainsttheoriginalforaccuracyagainstotherslikeitforconsistencyandagainstthecitationsofitinyourpapertobesurethatnamesdatesreferencenumbersandanyotherinformationthatappearinbothplacesareidentical.IfyouuseanysourcesinlanguagesotherthanEnglishyoumaywanttotranslatethetitlesintoEnglishinyourreferencelistorbibliographysomejournalswillinsistonthisastandardwaytodothisistoplacetheEnglishtranslationinsquarebracketsimmediatelyaftertheoriginaltitle.RemembertoprovideURLsandDOIsuniformresourcelocatorsanddigitalobjectidentifiersforsourcesthatyouaccessedonlineandifthestyleorguidelinesyoureusingrequireitanaccessorretrievaldate.Finallybesuretocheckthejournalguidelinesregardingthenumberofreferencesyouareallowedtouseinyourpapersomejournalswillsetalimitof20or40referencesforinstancedependingonthetypeofpaper.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk PRSTipEvenwhenallinstructionsarefollowedandtheutmostcareistakentocitesourcesaccuratelyandconstructathoroughreferencelistorbibliographyerrorsandinconsistencieswillinevitablycreepinandcorrectingthemisespeciallytime-consumingbecauseeachandeverydetailneedstobecheckedagainstboththesourcesandthestylesheetorguidelines.Aprofessionalproofreaderfamiliarwithacademicandscientificreferencingstylescanbeofenormousassistancebutaproofreadercannotprovidecitationsorconstructareferencelistforyou.Sothekeytomakingaproofreadersworkserveyouwellistodoyourverybesttoprovideappropriatecitationsinyourtextandcompletebibliographicalinformationinyourlistinasconsistentamanneraspossiblethatconformsascloselyasyoucanmanagetothestylewithwhichyoureworking.ThensendyourpaperandyourreferencelistalongwithinformationaboutthestyleorguidelinesyourefollowingtousatPRSandwellcheckcorrectandcommentontheseaspectsofyourwork.Ifyoureusingyourownformatforreferencesbeespeciallycarefultobeasconsistentaspossiblethroughoutyourlistbecauseonlyifyousetthepatternclearlycanaproofreaderdeterminewhatthatpatternisandhelpyouconformtoitasheorsheensuresthatallyourreferencesarecompleteandadheretogoodacademicorscientificpractice.86PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality5.3AumaicFrmaitUrntUThevariouskindsofautomaticformattingavailableinsoftwareprogrammessuchasWordandEndnotecanbeincrediblyhelpfultheywillmanageandarrangemanyaspectsofanacademicorscientificpaperincludingspacingandindentationlistsofdifferentkindsnumberedheadingsfootnotesandendnotestablesandPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 87PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitychartsandcitationsandreferencelists.Howevertheyneedtobeusedwithcareandonlyifthejournalguidelinesyoureworkingwithallowsuchautomaticformatting.Somejournalsdiscourageauthorsfromusingautomaticreferencingofanykindforinstanceaskingthatcitationsandreferencelistsbecompiledtypedinmanuallywhileothersencouragetheuseofautomaticreferencingandthesamevariationinrequirementsoccurswithregardtotablesnotesandevenindentation.Sotheguidelinesshouldalwaysbeconsultedandeveryeffortshouldbemadetocomplywiththemparticularlybynotusinganysortofformattingtheguidelinesbothertomentionasundesirable.Whenindoubthoweverorwhenlefttoyourowndevicesintheabsenceofspecificinstructionsitsusuallybesttoavoidautomaticformattingparticularlythemorecomplicatedkindsasmuchaspossible.Asageneralruletoomuchformattingcancauseproblemsforpublishersandmuchoftheformattingthatauthorsaddtotheirpapersissimplyremovedbysomejournalsduringcopyediting.Intheworstcasescenarioapaperwillberejectedorreturnedforrevisionwhentoomuchunwantedformattingdoublecolumnsforinstanceortablesformattedbythewrongprogrammeispresent.YetitsalsoimportantthatyoulayoutyourarticleinsuchawaythattheeditorcanreadilyseehowyouintendyourpapertolookandmakingyourpaperlookgoodisofcoursealargepartofthereasonbehindallthedetailsIveprovidedaboveaboutpresentationsotheuseofautomaticformattingisanotherinstanceoftheneedtofindandmaintainadelicatebalance.Youalsoneedtoproofreadwithgreatcareanypartofyourpaperthatyouveconstructedthroughautomaticformatting.Neverassumethattheprogrammehasgotitallrightbecausethisisalltoorarelythecase.Checkeverywordeverynumberandeverybitofpunctuationpayattentiontofontstylesandsizesandpatternsofcapitalisation.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 88PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAutomaticreferencingforinstancemayachieveaformatveryclosetothestyleyouneedbutoneparticulardetailwillconsistentlybewrongorunusualorcomplicatedreferenceswillbeformattedininappropriateways.Soeachreferencewillneedtobecheckedandifnecessarycorrectedmanually.Automaticnumberingoflistsandsectionsusuallycomesoutaccuratelybutsometimesanitemorheadingistypedorpastedintoadocumentinsuchawaythattheprogrammedoesntrecognisethatitneedstobenumberedandwhilethismaybesimpleenoughtoremedyinalistofsixitemswhenmisnumberingoccursinthesectionsofapaperthatcontainsmanysubsectionsandcrossreferencesbasedonthatincorrectnumberingtheproblemcanquicklyincreaseinmagnitudeandtakeconsiderabletimeandattentiontorepair.Soifyouletyourwordprocessingprogrammenumberyoursectionswatchwhatitsdoingasyouwriteandcorrectanyerrorsimmediatelybeforetheygrowintolargerproblems.OnthewholeautomaticformattingisausefultoolandvirtuallyunavoidableintheworldofmodernpublishingwhoforinstancewouldntuseWordsautomaticformattingforfootnotesAsawriterwhoremembershowtrickyitwastolayoutfootnoteseffectivelyonthepagebeforetherewassuchatoolIcouldntimaginenotusingit.Howeverthatotherwisewonderfulfootnotingfunctioncanintroduceglitchesandfootnoteshaveanastyhabitofsuddenlydisappearingatthebottomofthepagenotinthemaintextasacomplexdocumentiseditedandtheprogrammefacesthechallengeofrearrangingnotesandtextonarapidlychangingpage.ThenotesarentusuallyactuallygoneandgenerallyalittlefiddlingcanbringthembackbutthereareinstanceswhereIvehadtoretypefootnotes.Automaticreferencingontheotherhandcancomplicatetheeditingprocesswithin-textcitationssometimesprovingdifficulttochangethereferencelistoccasionallyshiftingpositioninapaperwhenthedocumentiscopiedintoacleancopyafterproofreadingforexampleandtheblockformatPARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRk 89PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityofthelistpreventingmarginalcommentsonindividualfeaturesofthereferenceswhichmeansthataneditororproofreadercanonlyhighlightandcommentonthelistasawholenotonindividualdetailswithinthelist.Thiscanresultinalesspreciseandeffectivemeansofcommunicationwithbotheditorsandproofreaderssodokeepthatinmindwhenaddingyourcitationsandreferencelist.Therearemanyreasonsthentomaintainasmuchcontroloverallaspectsofyourpaperaspossible.Sowhenyouuseautomaticformattingofanykinduseitsparinglyandcarefullyandtreatitasahelpfultoolnotasasubstituteforyourowndiscernmentandsenseofdesign.PARtIIPRePARIngPResentIngAndPolIsHIngYoURwoRkPRSTipTherearesimplewaystoavoidoreffectivelyuseautomaticformattinginWordwithoutalteringprogrammesettings.ThefollowingtwowillhelpyouresolveproblemsIvementionedaboveWhenyouwanttoavoidtheautomaticnumberingfunctioninlistsandheadingsbeginbytypingaspaceonthelinefollowedbytheheadingoritemthenreturntothebeginningofthelineandaddthenumberbeforethespace.Sinceitswhenyouaddaspaceorreturnafteranumberthattheautomaticnumberingkicksinitwontapplyifyouentertheinformationinthisway.Ifafootnotehasdisappearedfromthebottomofthepageaddanewfootnotetothemaintextafewwordsbeforethenumberofthelostfootnote.Thisusuallynudgestheprogrammeintorememberingthelostfootnotewhichwillreappear.Thenyoucandeletetheunnecessarynoteyouaddedorsimplyusetheundobuttonandthelostnotewillremainbutinsomedocumentsthisproceduremayneedtoberepeatedwheneverthefileisopenedormajorchangesaremade. 90PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPartIIICommunicatingwithJournalEditorsSubmissionAcceptanceRevisionandRejectioncHAPteR6FirthiFirearihIraRpfaAairsiifieirImpressinganacademicorscientificeditorinalltherightwaysisnotaneasytask.Evenafteryouveconsideredalltheaspectsdiscussedaboveofdesigningwritingandpresentingatop-notchscholarlypaperforanappropriateandrespectedacademicorscientificjournalyouwillneedtoinvestafairamountoftimeandeffortintowritinganeloquentcoveringletterthathighlightsboththeuniqueachievementsofyourworkanditsrelevanceandtopicalityforthejournalpreparingtheinitialelementsofyourarticletitleabstractandkeywordswithspecialsomemightsayobsessivecareandsubmittingyourpaperexactlyasthejournalindicates.Rememberthatyouneedtocapturetheattentionofsomeonewhoisinundatedwithpapersabstractsandletterseachandeverydayandwhosejobdependsonmakingdecisionsthatleadtothesuccessfulpublicationofqualityscholarship.Thinkofthateditorasapersondesperatelyseekingareasontorejectratherthanaccepttheworkthatcrosseshisorherdeskandthefirstimpressionsyourwritingmakesasyourinitiallineofdefenceyouneedtoconvincethatoverworkededitorthatitwouldbeamistakenottoconsideryourpaperseriouslyandideallypersuadehimorherthatyourworkwillnotonlyfitthejournalspublishingagendabutstandoutasexceptionalamongthemanypapersitpublisheseachyear.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 91PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality6.1crilrFirIpriAlthoughnotallacademicandscientificjournalsrequireacoveringletterthesedaysmanydoandotherswillallowyoutosendoneeitherasaseparatedocumentorasthefirstpageofyourpaper.Ifthejournalsguidelinesofferyoueventhesmallestopportunitytoincludeacoveringletterwithyoursubmissionoreveniftheydontsuggestthatyoucantsendoneandwhileitsnotagoodideatoirritateaneditorwithacoveringletterthatsnotwantedevenabriefandbeautifullywrittenparagraphortwoinanemailmessagewillserve.Acoveringletterallowsyoutoaddressthejournalseditordirectlyandexplainexactlywhatyourworkisanyaspectsofitthatareuniqueandimportantandthewaysinwhichitisrelevanttothejournalspublishingagenda.Aswellasbeinginformativeacoveringletterisasampleofyourwritingyourpersuasiveskillsandyourprofessionalperspective.Itcanmakeorbreakanarticlesubmissionbyeitherencouragingtheeditortotakeaseriouslookatthepaperitselforconvincinghimorherthattheresnopointinreadingfurther.Itgoeswithoutsayingthatthelanguageinwhichacoveringletteriswrittenshouldbecorrectineverywayandapleasuretoread.Acoveringletterisnottheplaceforgrammaticalororthographicerrorsawkwardconstructionssloppysentencestructureorvaguevocabulary.Avoidabbreviationsanddetaileddataandbesuretouseterminologythatisappropriatetothejournalsfocuseskeepinginmindbothitsrangeandspecialisation.YouwanttoletyourreaderknowthatyouareanexpertinyourfieldandfamiliarwiththetermsandmethodsusedintheresearchareascoveredbythejournalbutyoudontwanttolosethatreaderrememberthattheeditormakingtheinitialdecisionastowhetheryourpaperisworthseriousconsiderationornotwillknowagreatdealaboutthetopicscoveredbythejournalandhaveaverygoodideaofthekindofpapersthePARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 92PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityjournalislookingforbutmaynotbeaspecialistinyourarea.Therewasatimewhenmostsubmissioneditorswereexpertsinthetopicsofthepaperstheyconsideredforpublicationandwithsomepublishersthisisstillthecasebutitsrarernowadaysandoftenyourpaperwontpassundertheeyesofspecialistsunlessitmakesitoverthefirsthurdleandissentonforpeerreview.Itcanhelpfulbothforyouandfortheeditorifyousuggestinyourletterorinyourpaperitselfifthejournalguidelinesindicateitafewresearcherswhowouldserveasappropriatereviewersofyourwork.Suchsuggestionswillbetakenwithagrainofsaltofcoursebecauseanauthorcaninfluencetheresultsofreviewssignificantlybyguidinganeditortousereviewerswhoarefriendsorcolleaguesorcertaintosupporthisorherresultsorperspective.Soitwouldbeextraordinaryforaneditortofollowuponallyoursuggestionsbutoftenoneormoreofthescholarsyousuggestwillbecontactedtoreviewyourpaperandsimplybyofferingimportantnamesinyourfieldandimplyingthatyoubelieverespectedacademicsorscientistswillassessyourworkpositivelyyouestablishaprofessionalandconfidenttoneinyourletter.Suchatoneisessentialtothesuccessofacoveringletteryourconfidenceinyourresearchmethodsresultsandargumentneedstoshinethroughyourprosewithoutandthiscanbetrickycomingacrossasarroganceormisjudgementaboutthevalueofyourwork.Apreciseandinformativebutbriefexplanationofexactlywhatyourresearchisandwhyitissoimportanttobothyouandotherscholarsinyourfieldwilljustifyyourconfidence.YoumightwanttoindicatebrieflyforinstancewhereyourresearchfitsintoscholarshipasawholeonthetopichowyourmethodologyisreliableandorinnovativeinrelationtotheapproachesusuallyusedintheareathewayinwhichyourperspectivediffersfromthatofotherresearchersPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 93PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityworkinginthefieldandorhowyourtheoriesandresultsaregroundbreakingoratleastimportanttoscholarlyandothercommunities.Youonlyhavesomuchroomhoweverandthismaterialwillneedtobeconciseaswellaseloquentsoitsimportanttobeselectiveandlayparticularemphasisonaspectsofyourworkthatwillbeofspecialinteresttothejournalandthustoitseditor.Itsalsovitaltogetsecondopinionsonyourcoveringletterwhenyouretryingtomakealargeimpressionwithasmallnumberofwordsitseasyevenasanativespeakerofalanguagetoleaveoutessentialdetailsorgeneraliseininappropriatewayssoreadandrereadyourletteryourselfandthenpassitalongtocolleaguessupervisorsfellowstudentscriticalfriendsanyonewithknowledgeintheareaofyourresearchorpublicationmoregenerallywhoswillingtoshareanopiniononstyleandcontent.Prioritiseresponseswheneditingandpolishingbutconsiderthemallseriouslyafterallyoucananticipatewhichresponsesmightbesharedbytheeditoryourehopingtoimpressbutyousimplycantpredictaneditorsthoughtswithcertaintyandanyearlyhintofpotentialproblemsormisconceptionscanbeenormouslyhelpful.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonPRSTipRememberthatthePRSteamwillalwaysbedelightedtoproofreadcoveringlettersbooksynopsesaswellasthebookitselfgrantandthesisproposalslettersofrecommendationCVsandresumscallsforpapersconferenceannouncementsandschedulesprojectsummariespublicationlistsauthorbiographiesandanyotherkindofdocumentlongorshortassociatedwithacademicorscientificresearchandpublication. 946.2tiAbraakyrsuciWiththeexceptionofyourcoveringletterthetitleabstractandkeywordsofyourpaperarethefirstthingsencounteredbytheeditorconsideringyoursubmissionandtheveryfirstthingsifyourenotabletosubmitanysortofcoveringletter.Soalthoughallpartsofyourpaperdemandyourcarefulattentionifyoursubmissionistobesuccessfulextratimeandcareinvestedinthesethreeelementsofyourpapercanreapabountifulharvest.Thinkofyourpaperasdinneranditstitleabstractandkeywordsasappetisers.Youwanttheeditorandthereviewerswhowillhopefullyfollowtobetantalisedbyyourappetiserstoenjoythetextureandflavourofthesedelicacieswhilebuildingaheartyappetiteandonthatbasistoexpectgoodthingsfromthedinnerpapertofollow.Youdonotwantthemtofeelgluttedbytoomuchnourishmenttoorichlyseasonedorrepulsedbyadullproductofsolowaqualitythattheyleavethetablebeforedinnerarrives.Thisistosaythatyourtitleabstractandkeywordsshouldhooktheeditorandinspirehimorhertoreadontotherestofyourarticle.6.2.1TheVeryBeginningTheTitleVeryfewelementsofanacademicorscientificpaperhavetoaccomplishasmuchinasfewwordsasthetitledoes.Thetitleisthefirstpartofyourpaperreadbythespecialistswhowillreviewyourarticleifitpassesmusterwiththeeditorandbythereadersusuallymorespecialistsinyourfieldwhoencounteritinthejournalifyourefortunateenoughtosucceedingettingthepaperpublished.AccordingtotheAPAManualatitleshouldsummarizethemainideaofthemanuscriptsimplyandifpossiblewithstyle.5ForonethenitshouldconciselyinformyourreadersabouttheresearchyouPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon5ThePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation6thed.WashingtonDCAmericanPsychologicalAssociation201023. 95PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitydidinthestudymentioningthevariablesortheoreticalissuesyouinvestigatedinyourpaperandtherelationshipbetweentheme.g.EffectofChangingWeatherPatternsonHomeInsurancePoliciesanditcanalsohintatwhatyoudiscoverede.g.EffectofChangingWeatherPatternsonHomeInsurancePoliciesClientsLeftOutintheCold.SecondlyitshoulddobothinaninterestingandengagingwaythatallowsthelanguageyouusetocarrynuancesandallusionsperhapsevenalittlewordplaywhileprovidingthenecessarydetailswithprecisionthewordColdinthesecondexampleaboveforinstancenotonlyreferstotheunpleasantphysicalrealityofthosewholosetheirhomesduetonaturaldisastersbutalsoimpliesacertainlackofwarmthonthepartofinsurancecompanieswhodonotprovidesupportinsuchsituations.Thesubtitleasawholehintsatthenatureoftheresultswiththequestionmarkleavingthematteruncertainandthereaderwhosesympathyorcuriosityhasbeentweakedeageronehopestodiscovertheanswerandthuswellprimedtoreadon.Howevertitlesarealsobestiftheyreasshortaspossibleandmanystylemanualsandjournalguidelinessetstrictwordorcharacterlimitsontitles.TheAPAManualforinstancerecommendslimitingthetitleofanacademicorscientificarticleto12wordsorlesswhichrendersthesecondandtomymindmoreengagingofmytwoexamplesabovetoolongat15words.TherearethenbothpracticalandcreativereasonsforavoidingallunnecessarywordsinyourtitleadverbsandadjectivesarerarelynecessaryandshouldbeusedsparinglyandtomaximumeffectChanginginmytitleaboveforinstancealludestochangesinboththeweatherandthecoverageprovidedbyinsurancepolicieswhilewordssuchasstudymethodandresultsarealmostalwaysextraneousinthattheyservenousefulpurposeandcansimplyburdenatitleandrenderitmoreawkwardResultsSuggestthatClientsMightBeLeftOutintheColdPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 96PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitysaysbasicallythesamethingasthesubtitleIhaveabovebutitusesalmosttwiceasmanywordsandsimplyisntascatchy.DocheckthejournalguidelinesonthishoweverassomejournalsarentaversetolongertitlesandafewevenaskthatthetypeofstudyormethodologybeidentifiedinthetitleasasubtitleorevenasecondarysubtitlethoughtobehonestusingtwocolonsinatitleisntanEnglishstyleIdrecommendalongthelinesofAStudyProtocolorARandomisedTrial.Itmaybetemptingtouseabbreviationsinyourtitleanacronymiscountedasonewordafterallnomatterhowmanywordsitabbreviatesbutitsbettertoavoidthemandmanystylemanualsandjournalguidelineswillaskthatyoudo.WithsometermshowevertheabbreviationsarebetterknownthanthefullversionIQforinstanceandAIDSsoinsuchcasestheyareprobablyappropriateforthetitlefewpublisherswouldexpectyoutouseintelligencequotientinsteadofIQinyourtitle.IfyoufindthatyouabsolutelyhavetouseabbreviationsinyourtitlebesurethattheyarerelativelycommonandwillbefamiliartothejournalsaudienceindeedallterminologyyouuseinyourtitleshouldbeappropriatetotheaudienceyouanticipatebecauseIcanassureyouthatfeelinglostbeforeyouveevenmadeitthroughthetitleisafrustratingreadingexperience.Besuretoobserveanypatternsofcapitalisationrequiredbythejournaltowhichyouresubmittingyourpaperandthesameisthecasewithfontstyleandsizetheuseofpunctuationacolonoradashbetweentitleandsubtitleforexampletheplacementofthetitleinrelationtootherpartsofthepaperonaseparatepageatthetopofthepaperorbothandtheformatofanyrunningheadingthatmayberequired.Yourtitlecontainsonlyafewofthemanywordsinyourpaperbutitsrightupatthetopfortheworldincludingeditorstoseesoyouwanttomakeitperfectintermsoflanguageandformatandkeepitshortandinterestingaswell.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 97PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality6.2.2SummingItAllUpTheAbstractWhilecoveringlettersarerequiredlessoftenwithtodaysonlinesubmissionproceduresthantheyonceweretheneedforanabstractwhensubmittinganacademicorscientificarticleismorecommonevenindisciplinesthatoncewouldnothaveusedsuchaninitialsummaryofthepapertofollow.Soinmostcasesitsbesttoplanonincludinganabstractfromthebeginningregardlessofyoursubjectandfieldandtorecognisethatagoodabstractlikeagoodcoveringletteroragoodintroductionrequiresalotofconsiderationandyouwilllikelyneedtoreturntoitandmakeadjustmentsafewtimesbeforeitsfinished.Itsusefultodraftyourabstractearlyinthewritingprocessasitcanhelpyoufocusontheessentialelementsofyourresearchandresultsasyouworkonyourpaperbutyourabstractwillcertainlyneedtobeeditedandrewrittenonceyourpaperisfinishedandprobablyagainafteryouvehadacolleagueorotherqualifiedreaderlookitoverforyouwhichishighlyrecommendedinthecaseofanabstract.Aswithyourtitleitsvirtuallyimpossibletoputtoomuchtimeandeffortintoimprovingandpolishingyourabstractbecauseitisoftenamidsttheabstractthataneditoriseitherwonorlostandthesituationissimilarafterpublicationwhenreadersoftendecidewhethertoreadyourentirepaperornotonthebasisoftheabstracttheyfindthroughanonlineorotherkindofsearch.Sotheabstractofapapercanbethemostimportantpartofanarticleforgoodorill.Anacademicorscientificabstractshouldsummarisethecontentsofthepaperitprecedesbrieflyandcomprehensively.Itshouldnotcontaininformationthatisntpresentinthepaperanditshouldreportnotevaluatewhatcanbefoundinthepaper.Likethetitletheabstractneedstobepreciseconciseandasengagingaspossiblebutitalsoneedstobedenselypackedwithinformation.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 98PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityWordlimitsforabstractssetbyjournalsusuallyrangebetween100and300wordswith150-250themostcommonlengthandthoselimitsshouldbestrictlyobserveddespitehowmuchmustbeaccomplishedinthatshortspace.Acarefullypreparedabstractwillsituateyourresearchinbothitsphysicalandintellectualcontextsitwillinformthereaderabouttheproblemsorconceptsyoureinvestigatinganyparticipantsinyourstudyandtheessentialfeaturesofthemethodologyusedanditwillreportthebasicfindingsimplicationsandconclusionsofyourstudy.Eachabstractwillthereforealsobeuniquesoexactlywhatshouldorshouldnotbeincludedinanabstractvariesfromauthortoauthorandpapertopaper.Somestylemanualsandjournalguidelineswillprovidedetailedinstructionsonthekindofinformationthatshouldbeincludedinyourabstract.TheAPAManualforexamplegivessoundpracticaladviceaswellasoutliningtheexpectationsofabstractsforavarietyofdifferentkindsofpapersuchasempiricalstudiesliteraturereviewstheory-orientedpapersandcasestudies.AnAPAabstractisasingleparagraphbutinmanyjournalguidelinesdetailedadviceonthecontentofabstractswillcomeintheformofinstructionsforastructuredabstractthatisanabstractdividedintoshortsectionsorparagraphsusuallywithindividualheadingssuchasBackgroundMethodsParticipantsResultsConclusionandthelikeofteninboldoritalicfont.Theheadingscandifferfromjournaltojournalandalsoaccordingtothetypeofpapersobesuretochecktheguidelinescarefullyandtoidentifycorrectlywhattypeofpaperyouvewrittenbeforefinalisingthestructureandlayoutofyourabstract.Somejournalswillevenspecifythelengthofeachsectionoftheabstractbutinmostcasesthebalanceofinformationwillbeyourstodetermineandeveninacompletelystructuredabstractyouwillneedtodecidewhichconceptsmethodsandresultstoinclude.ThisPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 99PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitydecisionshouldbebasednotjustonwhatyouthinkmostimportantaboutyourresearchandthearticleitsgeneratedbutalsowhatyouthinkthejournaleditorwillfindmostappropriateandengagingforhisorherreaders.ItiscrucialofcoursethatyourabstractiswellwritteningrammaticallycorrectproperlypunctuatedandcompleteEnglishsentences.Everysentenceshouldbearthemaximumamountofinformationandmeaningpossiblewithminimaluseofminorwordsandeachmainwordshouldbechosenwithgreatcareprimarilyforitsdenotationsofcoursebutalsoforitspotentialconnotationsitshouldbepreciseandinformativeandifitmanagestonuancemattersinawaythatseemsappropriatetoyourresultsandthejournalsintereststhatsagoodthingtoo.Yourfirstsentenceinparticulariscrucialtogainingtheinterestandconfidenceofyourreaderitneedstobepolishedtoperfectioninbothcontentandstylesothatitreadssmoothlyandclearlycommunicatesimportantpointsaboutyourwork.Asageneralruleavoidreferencesinanabstractunlessessentialuseabbreviationsonlyiftheyreabsolutelynecessaryandnotatalliftheguidelinespreventitandclearlydefineeachoneotherthanthoseforcommonmeasuresthatyoudohavetouseandbewareoftoomuchspecialisedterminologyandjargonsomewillperhapsbenecessarytoexplainyourmethodsandresultsbutwhileyouwantyourreaderstoknowthatyoureawareofthecorrecttermsandhowtousethemyoudontwanttoconfuseorlosereaderswhoarenecessarilynotyetfamiliarwiththecontentofyourpaper.Whatyoudowantisforthemandespeciallythatall-importanteditortoreadonsoeverythingaboutyourabstractshouldencouragethatpossibility.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 100PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality6.2.3SearchingfortheRightTermsTheKeywordsForsuchasmallpartofyourpaperthekeywordspackaverylargepunchandintodaysworldofdigitalpublicationinwhichjournalarticlesareavailableworldwideviatheinternetsomemightarguethatapaperskeywordsareevenmoreimportantthanapaperstitle.Inonesenseperhapstheyarecertainlyitiseasiertoincludeinthekeywordsthetermsyouthinkreadersarelikelytousewhensearchingforinformationonthetopicscoveredinyourpaperbecausethatspreciselywhythekeywordsareincludedandtheresnoneedtojointhemsyntacticallyintothelogicalsenseoneexpectsofatitle.HoweveryourtitleisalsoatoolforfacilitatingyourreaderssuccessfuldiscoveryofyourarticleonceitspublishedandavailableonlineandsoisyourabstractbyembeddingkeywordsinyourtitleandabstractyouincreaseyourreadersabilitytofindPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonPRSTipAbstractscanoftenrequirealotofattentionduringandafterproofreadingespeciallyifyourenotanativespeakerofEnglishandfindyourselfstrugglingtocondensethecontentsofyourpaperintocarefullystructuredsentencesthatexpressyourideaswithprecision.IfyouhavetorewriteyourabstracttoasignificantdegreeafterhavingyourpaperreadbyaPRSproofreaderoranyothercarefulcriticalreaderyoumaywanttosenditbackforasecondread.Youcanalwayssendjusttheabstractandoranyotherparticularlyproblematicpartofyourpaperandrequestthesameproofreadertodouble-checkyourrevisionsoradifferentoneifyoudlikeasecondopinion.Itsagoodwaytoreducethecostoffinalproofreadingwhilebuyingpeaceofmindbeforesubmittingyourwork. 101PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitythemviathosekeywordsandinyourabstractinparticularyouhavealotofroomtoincludeessentialtermsthroughwhichyourpotentialreadersmightsearchforinformationoftheverykindthatyourpaperpresents.Sochoosethewordsyouuseinyourabstractandtitlewiththesamecareandeyetosearchabilityasyoudothekeywordsthemselves.Thenumberofkeywordsrecommendedorallowedisalmostalwaysindicatedinjournalguidelineswiththreeusuallybeingtheminimumandfivetoeightthemaximum.Somejournalswillwantyoutolistyourkeywordsalphabeticallyseparatethemwithcommasorsemi-colonsuseaninitialcapitaloneachtermornotandotherwiseformattheminparticularwayssoconsulttheinstructionsbeforefinalisingyourlist.Acronymsareusuallyacceptableaskeywordsespeciallyiftheacronymiswellknownorislikelytobeusedasasearchwordbythereadersyouretargetingbutconnectivewordse.g.andorbetweenetc.areoftenfrowneduponbecausetheyservelittlepurposeandcanvaryconsiderablyinthephrasesusedassearchtoolswhichmeansthattheycanpotentiallyhinderinsteadofhelpingpotentialreaderswhentheyaresearchingforpapersjustlikeyours.Bychoosingappropriatekeywordsandusingthemeffectivelyinotherpartsofyourpaperyouincreasethepossibilityofyourpaperbeingmorewidelyreadandcitedandthusincreaseyourchancesofachievingtheeffectyouwouldwishforyourarticle.Atthesametimeyouhelpincreasethereadersandratingsofthejournalthathaspublishedyourpaperwhichmakesforawin-winsituationseealsoSection2.1.2above.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 102PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality6.3RayawiisubiiPrurIdeallyyouwillhavefamiliarisedyourselfwiththejournalssubmissionproceduresbeforeorwhilepreparingyourpapersowillalreadyhaveformattedthedifferentpartsofyourpaperinappropriatewaysandusedtherighttypeoffilesbutwhenyoufindyourselfreadytosubmityoushouldcheckallsubmissionrequirementsagaintobesureyouvenotmissedanydetailsanddouble-checkyourpaperandotherfilestobesuretheyconformtotherequirementsineveryway.Ignoringthespecificsofajournalsinstructionsabouthowarticlesshouldbesubmittedisaneffectivetechniqueforirritatinganeditorbeforeheorshehasreadevenasinglewordofyourworksoyouneedtodoyourbesttoensurethatyoudontgivethateditoranyreasontobelievethataspectsofyourpapermightnotconformtojournalrequirementsandthusdecidenottoreaditorevenyourcoveringletteratall.Inmanycasesnotmeetingthesubmissionrequirementswillsimplywinyouarequesttoresubmitappropriatelybutthattakestimeandpatienceonbothyourpartandthatofthejournalsstaffaswellaspotentialrevisionssoitsbesttogetitrightthefirsttimeandimmediatelyestablishaprofessionalandproductiverelationshipwiththejournalinwhichyourehopingtobepublished.Althoughtherearejournalswhichacceptmultiplesubmissionsthatisthatarewillingtoconsiderpapersthataresimultaneouslysubmittedtootherjournalsaswellthisisrareamongacademicandscientificjournalsoftenconsideredsomewhatunethicalandbestavoided.Conscientiouseditorsandreviewersspendagreatdealoftimeonyourpapergenerallyontheassumptionthatyougenuinelywanttopublishyourworkintheirjournalandthattheirviewsareimportanttoyou.IfyousubmityourpapertoseveraljournalswiththeintentionofpublishingitintheonethatgivesyouthebestreviewyounotonlydiminishthevalueoftheeffortinvestedbytheeditorsPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 103PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityandreviewerswhoreadyourarticlebutwillalsotendtoignorewhatmightbevalidandvaluablecriticismsofyourpapercriticismsthatiftakenseriouslyandaccommodatedinrevisionswouldimproveyourpaper.Abetterandmoreprofessionalpracticeifsomewhatmoretime-consumingistosubmittoonejournalandonlysubmittoasecondoneiftheresponsefromthefirstisasimplerejectionorrequiresrevisionsthatyoufeelaftercarefulreflectionwouldbeinappropriateforyourwork.Ifyoudofeeltheneedtosubmityourpapertomorethanonejournalatoncebesuretoinformeachjournalofthisfactinyourcoveringletter.Itsalsogoodinthiscasetosetadeadlineinyourletterthreemonthsaftersubmissionforinstancebywhichyoullbehopingtohearbackbeforemakingafinaldecisionaboutwhichjournaltochoosebutbeawarethatinsomecasesthiscanbackfireandmakeyourpaperalowerprioritythanapaperthathasbeensentexclusivelytoonejournal.Mostacademicandscientificjournalsnowacceptandmanyoftheminsistononlinesubmission.Ifyourenewtothisprocessandfindaspectsofitconfusingsendyourquestionsalongtotheemailaddressthatisusuallyprovidedasacontactforsubmissionqueries.Itsfarbettertoaskandhaveyourquestionsclarifiedthantocompletetheprocessincorrectlyorgiveupandattempttosubmitinwaysnolongeracceptabletomanyjournalsinaprintcopyviapostalmailforinstance.BesurethatyourdocumentsareinthecorrectfileformatsWordisamongthepreferencesofmostjournalsbuttherewilloftenbeotheroptionsaswell.Sometimesfiguresandoccasionallylargetableswillneedtobesentasseparatefileseitherinthesamefileformatasthemaindocumentorpreparedviaadifferentprogrammesobesuretoprepareandsubmitthemjustastheguidelinesindicatetakingintoconsiderationwhethertheywillbereproducedinblackandwhiteorcolourinprintonlineorboth.TakecaretoowiththeplacementoftablesandfigureswithinyourmainPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 104PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitypaperiftheguidelinessuggestthatthisisacceptablebecausejournalsdifferconsiderablyintermsofwheretheywanttablesandfigurespositionedwithinamanuscriptseeSection5.1above.Specialattentionshouldalsobepaidtoanysubmissionrequirementsassociatedwithblindpeerreviewing.Ifthejournalusesblindpeerreviewstoassesspaperspriortopublicationitsguidelineswillusuallycontainsomespecificinstructionsastowhatauthorsareexpectedtodoinordertoensurethattheiridentitieswillnotbeknowntothespecialistsreviewingtheirwriting.Requirementsdifferbutcanincludeensuringthatthenameoftheauthorornamesoftheauthorsiftherearemorethanoneandanyotherpersonalinformationdonotappearonthetitlepageincludedwiththepaperwhichusuallymeansthatatitlepageorothershortdocumentwiththatpersonalinformationwillneedtobesubmittedseparatelythatanysourceswrittenbytheauthorofthesubmittedpaperthatarecitedinthepaperandlistedamongthereferencesshouldbereferredtoinsuchawaythatareadercannotdeterminethatthesameauthorisresponsibleforthepapercurrentlyunderconsiderationanypassagesthatyouneedtoaltertomeetthisrequirementcanbechangedbackoncethepaperisacceptedforpublicationandthatanyauthoridentificationshouldberemovedfromthepropertiesofthefilesyousubmit.Ifyoudonotobservesuchrequirementsyourpaperwillbereturnedatleastforrevisionsbeforeitcanbereviewedsocarewithsuchdetailsthefirsttimearoundwillbetterfacilitateasuccessfulreviewprocess.Donotexceedanywordlimitsindicatedforthearticleasawholeorforanyparticularsectionofthepapersuchastheabstractandbeawarethatwordlimitsmaydifferaccordingtotypeofpaperinsomejournalguidelinessoreadthemcarefully.WhilemanyeditorswillnotbeputoffbyagoodpaperthatslightlyexceedswordcountsandPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 105PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitysuchaminordiscrepancycanbesortedoutduringfinaleditingajournalthatwantspapersofabout25pagesorperhaps10000wordsdoesnotwantpapersof50pagesor20000words.DoincludeacoveringletterifthisispermittedseeSection6.1aboveandanyothersupportingdocumentsthatmayberequiredsuchasanauthorbiographyalistofpreviouspublicationsoraCV.Youmayneedtonumberanyfilesyouresubmittingandthepageswithintheminwhateverwaystheguidelinesindicateandlabelornamethemaccordingtotheinstructionsaswellincludingrunningheadingswithinthedocuments.Finallyremembertosendalongwithyoursubmissionanyprocessingorreviewingfeesthatmayberequiredatthispointyourpaperwillnotbeconsideredwithoutthem.Asageneralrulethemoreyoucandotomeetthejournalsrequirementsineachandeverywaythebetterchanceyouhavethatyourpaperwillbegreetedwithapositiveattitude.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonPRSTipItsalwaysgoodtoleaveyourselfalittleextratimebetweenfinishingyourpaperandactuallysubmittingit.Adayortwoorbetterstillaweekcanprovideenoughdistancetoallowyouamoreobjectiveperspectiveonworkinwhichyouvenecessarilybeenimmersedforsometime.Soifyoucansetyourpaperandallaccompanyingdocumentsasideforabitandreturntoreadthemonadaywhenyouhaveenoughtimetoreadthrougheverythingcarefullyatonesitting.Oftenerrorsawkwardphrasesandinconsistentterminologyandformattingunnoticedfordaysorevenweekswillsuddenlyleapoffthepagewhenyougiveyourselfthissortofopportunitytobeathoughtfulcriticalreaderofyourownwriting. 106PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitycHAPteR7AfrsubiiApaRjiaRiiWaitingforaresponsefromajournaltowhichyouvesubmittedthepaperthathascostyousomuchhardworkandcarefulattentioncanfeellikeatimeoflimbosopatienceisrequired.Youcanusethistimehowevertoreflectonandrecordanyalterationsthatcometomindasyouagoniseoverwhetheryoureallydidgeteverythingrightornot.Avoidchanginganyofthedocumentsorfilesyouactuallysenttothejournalbecausetheyrepresenttheversionsofyourworkthatyouandthejournalwillbeworkingwithinthefutureiftheresponseyoureceiveispositive.Recordinganyideasforchangesinaseparatenotefileassociatedwithyouroriginalfilescanhoweverbeausefulwayofkeepingyourselfintouchwithyourpaperandpreparingyourselfforanyrevisionsthatmaybenecessary.7.1JuwhawrlkiFrthsufuPubihiRaihipThisisofcoursetheresponsethateveryscholarwouldliketoreceiveeachtimeheorshesubmitsapaperforpublication.Unfortunatelythatsnotthecasebutforthosefortunateenoughtofindasuitablehomefortheirworkatoncecelebrationisinordersodotaketheopportunitytogiveyourselfawell-deservedpatonthebackitsnotasmallaccomplishmenttosuccessfullypublishyourworkinareputablejournalintodayshighlycompetitivepublishingenvironment.Donothoweverconsideryourworkdone.Evenwhenajournalimmediatelyacceptsapaperforpublicationtheacceptanceisoftenaccompaniedbyrequestsforrevisions.ThesetendtobeminorbutthatdoesntmeantheyreunimportantPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 107PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitytothejournalseditorandtherewillalsobeproofstotendtoandperhapsotherrequirementsdependingonthejournal.Rememberthatdespiteyourelationandperhapsanoverwhelmingurgetohugtheeditorwhosendsyouthegoodnewsyoushouldremaincompletelyprofessionalinyourcorrespondence.Replyimmediatelyexpressyourgratitudeandexcitementwithinreasonaboutbeingpublishedinthejournalandyourwillingnesstocomplywithanyrequirementsthathavebeenmentionedwhethergeneraltoallauthorsorspecifictoyourpaper.Onlyifyoufindthatarequesttomakechangesinyourpaperisimpossibletoaccommodateshouldyourefusetomakethemandthenitsbestnottodosooutrightbuttoexplaincarefullyandcourteouslywhichrequestspresentaproblemandexactlywhy.Ifitsuncleartoyouwhysuchrequestshavebeenmadepolitelyaskiftheeditorcouldexplainthereasonbehindtherequestsmorethoroughly.Similarlyifyouvedecidedsinceyoufirstsubmittedyourpaperthatchangesareneededexplainthemcarefullyinyourreplydescribingindetailwhyyoubelievethechangesnecessaryandwhatyouintendtodotofixtheproblemsdevelopmentsinrelevantscholarshiporupdatesofpublishinginformationforsourcesareforinstancevalidandcommonreasonsforchanges.Beflexibleandwillingtocompromisewheneverpossiblewithregardtorevisionswhethertheyareinitiatedbyyouoryoureditoranddonotwaittoshareyourintentionsoryourchangesuntilthecopyeditingorproofstage.Generallyattheproofstagerevisionsareveryexpensiveandtheonlychangesthatcanbemadearecorrectionsoferrorssomepublisherswillchargeauthorsforchangesmadethislateinthegameeventhosethatbothauthorandeditordeemabsolutelynecessaryandsuchchangescanquicklybecomeveryexpensive.AllrequestsfromthejournalwhethermajororminorshouldbedealtwithinatimelyfashionandalldeadlinesforreadingandcorrectingPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 108PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityproofsforinstanceshouldbemet.Journalsusuallyworkonverytightschedulesandyouwantyourworkpublishedsoonerratherthanlater.Keepthedoorsofcommunicationopenasyoureworkingtowardfinalpublicationandbesuretoexplainandjustifyanyproblemsyourefacingthatmaymakeitdifficultforyoutocomplywithanyrequirementsortodosointhetimeframesetbythejournal.Anyfeesforpublicationofyourpaperorforprintingfiguresincolourwhichtendstobeexpensiveandcostextrashouldbepaidassoonastheyaredue.Howeverassuchfeescanoftenbepaidbyyouruniversitysubsidisedthroughmembershiportakenfromresearchgrantsorscholarshipfundsdoexplorethoseavenuesbeforesendingalongyourcreditcardnumberpublicationfeesforsomejournalscanbeveryhighthesedaysandinstitutionalsupportofscholarlypublicationisusuallyexpectedbyjournalsasmuchasitisdesiredbyacademicandscientificauthors.7.2whnmanPrfiadparuranBiiAsanundergraduateIandsomefellowstudentsonceattendedadinnerpartyatwhichoneofourmostrespectedprofessorsconfessedthatshehadearnedaDgradeinauniversity-levelphilosophycourse.IsuspectthatwewouldneverhaveheardsuchshockingnewshadtonguesnotbeenwellloosenedbythewinethatwasflowingincelebrationofexamscomingtoanendandonlylaterdidIrealisehowinterestingandencouragingaconfessionitwasasweallanxiouslyawaitedourgrades.Thepersonwhomadeitwasafterallatenuredfullprofessorshehaddesignedanddirectedawomensstudiesprogrammeforyearsandwasbothwellrespectedandwellpublishedinherfield.SheconcludedherconfessionwithwordsthatarewellworthconsideringwhenfacedwitharejectionletterfromajournalorPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 109PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityanyotherpublisherSoyouseethereisacademiclifeafteraDMyfellowstudentsandIsharedsomemeaningfullooksandamomentofsombrereflectionbutallofustheprofessorwiththenear-failinggradeincludedwereverysoonlaughingandmovingontootherthings.ImnotsuggestingthatlaughterisanappropriateresponsetoarejectionletteroroftenanemailmessagethesedaysbutIllsticktoletterhereorthatyouwillfeelremotelylikelaughingwhenfacedwithsuchbadnewsunlessofcourseyoudecidetoimbibeagooddealofwineyourselfwhichmayormaynotbeadvisable.Iamsuggestinghoweverthatthereisasuccessfulpublicationcareerafterhavingyourwritingrejectedbyaneditor.J.K.Rowlingapparentlyreceivedover50rejectionsbeforeapublisherfinallyacceptedthefirstinherseriesofbest-sellingHarryPotterbooksIoftenwonderhowmanyofthosepublishershavesinceusedthosevolumestoknockthemselvesovertheheadandvirtuallyeverysuccessfulpublishingacademicorscientisthasexperiencedatleastoneletterofrejectionovertheyears.Unfortunatelylettersofrejectioncanbeterriblyimpersonalandwhilethisisahelpfulreminderthatwritingandpublishingarebusinessandrejectionsarenotpersonalitcanalsobemaddening.Receivingarejectionletterforinstancethatcurtlystatesthatyourpaperdoesnotfitthejournalspublishingagendawhenyouknowverywellfromyourresearchonthejournalthatitdoesindeedfitthatagendaprovidesnorealreasonfortherejectionandnoadviceforimprovement.Sucharejectioncanbefrustratingandunhelpfulbutitssimplyaquickgeneralwayofsayingnothankyouandaverygoodindicationthatitstimetomoveontoadifferentjournal.Althoughtherearealwaysexceptionsthereislittlepointindemandingexplanationsinsuchanincommunicativeenvironmentandagoodchanceofshiningapoorlightonarelationshipwithajournalthatcouldinthefuturestillbealikelycandidateforsubmissions.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 110PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityIftheletterprovidessomethingalittlemorehelpfulbysuggestingforinstancethatyourworkisinterestingbutyourarticlewouldbemoreappropriateforamorespecialisedjournalorperhapsjusttheoppositethatyourpaperwouldbeabetterfitforalessspecialisedjournalthattooisusuallyanexampleofnomeaningno.InsuchcasesitsbestsimplytomoveonandresubmitelsewheretakingintoconsiderationwhilechoosinganewjournalseeSection2.1aboveanyspecificcommentstheeditormighthaveoffered.WheneverindoubtaboutwhetheraresponseisarejectionoraconditionalacceptancewhichIdiscussbelowhaveacolleaguewhosworkedwitheditorsandpublisherstakealookattheletter.Alessthanpositivereplyfromaneditorisnotthetypeofnewsonewantstoshareofcoursebutasecondopinionfromaknowledgeabletrustworthyfriendcanbeextremelyhelpfulatthispoint.7.3wrIrbuthRiiPrManyrejectionletterscanbereadinamorepositivelightasconstructivecriticismthatcanhelpimprovepapersandthescholarshipinthemandevenasconditionalacceptancelettersthoughsomewouldarguethatthereisacleardistinctionbetweenrejectionandconditionalacceptancethatresidesinthatall-importantbutintheheadingabove.Aletterthatexplicitlystatesthatitwillacceptapaperifandonlyiftheconditionsitlaysoutthesearegenerallyproblemstoberesolvedaremetsometimeswithinasetamountoftimeisaconditionalacceptance.Aletterthatlaysoutanumberofproblemstoberesolvedinyourpaperiftheeditoristoconsiderorreconsideritisntquiteaconditionalacceptancebutverynearlyso.Aletterthatrejectsyourpaperandprovidesveryspecificreasonsforsodoingisntaconditionalacceptanceeitherbutitholdsoutsomehope.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 111PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityDeterminingwhetheryoushouldorshouldnotreviseyourpapertoresolvetheproblemsindicatedinaresponsefromajournaleditorcanbedifficultevenifthelettersaysthatyourpaperwillbepublishedifyoumakethechanges.Ifaneditorsdemandsmeanthatanauthorwouldneedtocompromisewhatheorshebelievestobetheintegrityofhisorherresearchdataandorargumentforexampleascholariswelladvisedtoconsiderthemattercarefully.Ifacceptanceaftercomplyingisnotacertaintyitmaybebesttomovealongtoanotherjournalfirstandifacceptanceisacertaintyafterconditionsaremetitmayprovenecessarytowriteacarefullycraftedresponseexplainingwhatcanandcannotbechangedandwhy.Ifacompromisecanbenegotiatedwiththeeditorevenethicalandintellectualhurdlescanbesurmounted.Justaseachpaperisuniqueeachletterfromaneditorisuniqueandreadinginformationthatyoureallywouldrathernothavereceivedatallwithanopenobjectiveandthoughtfulmindespeciallywhenyourownwritingisthefocuscanbedifficult.Afterfirstreadingadisappointingletterfromaneditorregardlessofwhetheritisarejectionoracallforrevisionitsbesttosetitasideorclosetheemailmessageandtakesometimetocalmdownandregaindistance.GoforawalkorenjoyabubblebatheatsomeicecreamorworkoutatthegymwatchafunnymovieorreadsomeJaneAustenwhateverittakestosoftentheblowandbringyoutoamoreobjectiveperspective.Thenreadtheletteragainwithyourfocusonunderstandingexactlywhataboutyourpaperwascriticisedandwhatsortofsuggestionsmighthavebeenofferedforimprovements.Haveanexperiencedcolleagueideallyonewhoreadoriswillingtoreadyourpaperforyoureadtheletteraswellandofferideas.Thenrereadyourpapercriticallypayingspecialattentiontoanydetailsorsectionssingledoutasproblematicintheletter.SomedecisionsabouthowtoproceedwithrevisionswillbePARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 112PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitymuchmorecomplicatedthanothersandeachsituationuniquebutbelowyoullfindabriefdiscussionofthreemaincategoriesofcriticismthatoftenariseinthelettersacademicandscientificauthorsreceivefromeditors.7.3.1FormattingStructureandReferencingStyleOneoftheeasiestformsofcriticismtodealwithisthataddressingnoncompliancewithjournalguidelinesregardingtheformattingstructureandreferencingstyleusedinapaper.Ifforinstancetheletteryouvereceivedinformsyouthatyouhaventfollowedthejournalguidelinesinthestructureandlayoutofyourpaperintheformattingofyourtablesorperhapsinthecitationandreferencingstyleyouveusedandthosearetheonlyproblemsmentionedtheycanbeeasilyresolved.IftheletterisaconditionalacceptancebasedonyourimprovingtheseaspectsofyourpaperthenitssimplyamatterofcomplyingseeChapters35ofthisGuide.Replytotheeditorwiththanksforthehelpfulcriticismandexplainthatyouunderstandtheproblemsarebeginningrevisionsandwillbesendingtheeditedpaperbackassoonaspossibleorwithinacertaintimeframeifonehasbeengiven.Becauseittakesagooddealofworktoreformatapapercarefullyhoweverandtheformatrequireddiffersconsiderablyfromjournaltojournalitsagoodideatobecertainthatreformattingforthesamejournalwillbeworththeeffort.Soiftheletteryoureceivedonlysuggeststhattheeditormightreconsideryourpaperifyouresolvetheproblemsidentifiedorsimplypointsouttheproblemsasthereasonfornotacceptingthepaperitwouldbebestifyouwishtocontinuepursuingpublicationwiththejournaltoconfirmthatyoureffortswillinfactresultinseriousconsideration.ReplytotheeditorPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 113PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitywiththanksforthehelpfulcriticismexplainthatyouunderstandtheproblemsandaskifheorshewouldbewillingtoreconsideroracceptthepaperwereyoutocorrectthoseproblemsseeLetterA.1intheAppendixbelow.Iftheansweryougetbackispromisingitsprobablywellworthrevisingyourpaperandresubmittingtothesamejournal.Youveopenedthedoortoapositiveworkingrelationshipandshownyourwillingnesstoworktowardpublicationbutyouregoingtoneedtodothejobofcomplyingwiththejournalguidelinesmuchmorecarefullyandaccuratelythistime.Youvebeengivenasecondchanceanditwouldbeunwisetomakethesamemistaketwicethataneditorwillremember.WhetheryoureresubmittingyourpaperonthebasisofaconditionalacceptanceoraconditionalreconsiderationexplainindetailinaletteraccompanyingyourresubmissionexactlywhatyouvedonetoimproveyourformattingstructureandorreferencingstyleandaddresseachandeveryconcernitemisedintheletteryoureceivedseeLetterA.2intheAppendixbelow.Iftherewasanythingthatprovedproblematicoranywaysinwhichyouwerentabletocomplywiththeguidelinesorspecificrequestsmentionthemandwhytheproblemscouldntberesolvedasyoudhoped.Itsalwaysgoodtosuggestaswellyourwillingnesstorevisefurtherifneedbe.7.3.2LanguageandClaritySomewhatmorechallengingtodealwithiscriticismregardingtheaccuracyclarityandstyleofyourwrittenEnglishespeciallyasthisproblemcanoftenresultinmisunderstandingormisinterpretationofyourworkwhichcanalsoleadtocriticismofthesortdiscussedinSection7.3.3.AnyauthorwhotakeshisorherworkseriouslyenoughtoprepareandpolishitforpublicationisworkingtoPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 114PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitycommunicateeffectivelysoifthatcommunicationhasfailedinsomewayitcanbedifficulttodeterminehowtoproceed.ForthemostpartifitistheclarityandstyleofyourwritingthatstheproblemespeciallyifitsbeenpointedoutbymorethanoneeditoryousimplyneedtorevisetoimproveyourEnglishwriting.TheapproachestoreplyingtotheeditorIveoutlinedaboveregardingformattingstructuralandreferencingissuesSection7.3.1applyhereaswellwithafocusonlanguageofcoursebutwhetheryoumanagetoearnaconditionalacceptanceoraconditionalreconsiderationorneitheryouarealmostcertainlygoingtoneedtoreviseyourpaperbeforesubmittingitagaintothesameoranyotherjournal.AsyoureworkingtoimproveyourEnglishandyourarticleyoumayfindChapter4ofthisGuideparticularlyhelpfulandperhapsSection3.2aswell.Ifyouwerefortunateenoughtoreceivesomedetailedcommentaryfromtheeditoraboutthewritingproblemsinyourpaperreviewthoseconstructionsorwordsorareascarefullyandreadthroughyourpaperasawholewithyoureyealerttooccurrencesofanyincorrectpatternsmentionedbytheeditor.Iftheletteryoureceiveddoesntprovidesuchhelpfuladviceyouwillneedtoreviewyourprosemorecarefullystillandinthiscaseitisprobablybesttoseekasecondandperhapsathirdopinion.AspecialistinyourfieldwhohaspublishedinEnglishisagoodchoiceandsoisanativespeakerofEnglishacolleagueorfellowstudentifpossibleoraprofessionalacademicorscientificproofreader.Aswithrevisionstoformattingstructureandreferenceswhenyouresubmittothesamejournalbesuretoexplainpreciselywhatyouvedonetoimproveyourwritingincludinganyuseofprofessionalproofreadersasthiscanshowtheeditortheeffortyouvemadetoimproveyourpaperandspeakvolumesaboutyourwillingnesstodowhathastobedonetoachievesuccessfulpublication.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 115PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQuality7.3.3ContentMethodsDataandArgumentThiscanbethemostdifficultofallkindsofcriticismtodealwithbecauseitcutsattheheartofapaper.Languageproblemscancontributetoproblemswithyourmethodsdataandargumentandsocanformattingstructuralandreferencingissuesitsalloneintricateweaveafteralljustlikethattightrope.InsomeinstanceshoweveraneditororreviewerswilldetectmorefundamentalPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonPRSTipIfyouredealingwithrequestedrevisionstotheformattingstructurereferencesandorlanguageofyourpapertheproofreadingteamatPRScanhelpagreatdeal.Onceyouhaveyourpaperrevisedandyourexplanationofwhatyouvedonetomeetthejournalsrequirementscomposedsendusbothdocumentsalongwithlinkstotheguidelinesandwellproofreadthemcarefullytoensurethatyourrevisionsclarifyyourwritingandmeettherequirementsandthatyourexplanationofthemaccuratelydescribesthechangesyouvemade.YoucanusethetrackchangesfunctioninWordasyoureviseifyoudliketoshowyourproofreaderexactlywhatyouvedoneandifyouvebeenunabletoresolveanyproblemsyoucanhighlighttheminyourpaperwithmarginalcommentssoyourproofreaderwillknowtopayspecialattentiontothoseareasorconcerns.Sometimesclientsevensendalongtheversionofthepaperbearingtheeditorsorreviewerscommentsandthatcanbehelpfulforclarifyingproblemsaswell.AfterweveproofreadyourpaperandaccompanyingdocumentsremembertorequestacertificatestatingthatyourdocumenthasbeenproofreadbyPRS.Thiswillfurtherdemonstratetotheeditortheeffortsyouvemadetoimproveyourpaperandmeetthejournalsrequirements. 116PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityproblemswiththemethodologyofastudythetheoriesadoptedthedataoranalysispresentedandortheargumentconstructedbyanauthor.Itcantakeacarefulandopen-mindedreviewofyourownpaperandresearchinrelationtothecriticalcommentsyouvereceivedathoroughcriticalself-assessmentasitweretodecideexactlyhowtointerpretsuchcriticism.AretheproblemsraisedevidencethattheeditorsperspectiveissimplyfarremovedfromyourownandthejournaljustnottherightfitOraretheyvalidconcernsaboutrealshortcomingsorflawsinyourresearchthattakenconstructivelycouldfacilitatetheimprovementofyourarticleinfundamentalwaysIfthefirstisthecaseitwouldprobablybebesttosubmityourpapertoadifferentjournalifyoubelieveyourresearchtobevalidandvaluableitsyourresponsibilitytopublishitdespitedisagreement.Ifthesecondisthecasethenyourpaperalmostcertainlyneedsrevisionanditmightbeunethicaltosubmitittoanotherjournalwithoutresolvingtheproblemsidentifiedintheletteryouvereceived.Eachcaseisuniqueofcourseandyouwillhavetodecideforyourselfhowbesttoproceedideallywithsomeadvicefromoneormorespecialistsinyourfield.Academicadvisorsandsupervisorscanbeparticularlyhelpfulandsocanfellowstudentsandcolleaguesbutultimatelythesortsofchangesneededtoresolveproblemswithmethodsdataandargumenttendtobeonesthatonlytheauthorcanchooseandmake.Sometimesitsamatterofexplainingmorecarefullykeyissuessuchastherelationshipsandcontrolsconsideredinyourstudyorpresentingmoreclearlytheevidencegleanedfromyourresearchorstatingmoreexplicitlythelimitationsandshortcomingsofyourapproachesanddata.InotherinstancesyoumayneedtoclarifywhatisinnovativeandsignificantaboutyourresearchtojustifyyourmethodsandresultsoftenideasandapproachesthatmovebeyondconventionalwisdomneedtobePARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 117PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualitystatedmoreclearlyandmoreoftenthanonemightexpect.Thesemattersoverlapwithlanguageproblemsandreflectingcriticallybeforeyoureviseonbothwhatyouneedtotellyourreadersandthelanguageinwhichyousharethatinformationwilloftenimproveyourpaperimmensely.MorefundamentalarecriticismssuggestingthatthepaperyouvesubmittedistoopreliminaryornotaminimumpublishableunitseeSection1.4whichmeansthatitsnotacompletestudyitdoesntquitetellthewholestoryneededforanoriginalresearchpaperforinstancesoyoullneedtodevelopyourargumentfurtherbeforeresubmittingandperhapsprovideadditionalevidencewhetheryouchoosetostickwiththesamejournalornot.Similarlycriticaloftheoverallargumentofyourstudyisthecommentthatyourpaperisdescriptive.Researchpapersnecessarilydescribeproceduresandobservationsbuttheyneedtodomuchmorethanthatsotocallapaperdescriptiveistosuggestthattheauthorhasnotusedthedatapresentedinthepapertodevelopacoherentargumentitlacksforexampleahypothesisorthesisandaclearlineoflogicbywhichthathypothesisorthesisistestedthroughresearchandortrials.Thisisthesortofproblemthatrequiresareturntothedrawingboardtorethinkyourpurposeinwritingandredesignyourargument.Sometimesstartingyourpaperagaincuttingandpastingintheusefulbitsofinformationfromyourfirstversionasnecessaryisthebestrouteinsuchcases.Ifthecriticismyouvereceivedsuggeststhatyourdataiseitherinsufficientorunconvincingoryourexperimentsormeansofanalysisareflawedornecessarycontrolsareinadequateorabsentyoullneedtoreflectonthenatureofyourmethodologyandresults.Sometimespresentingthematerialdifferentlycanmakeagreatdifferencebutthissortofcriticismisanindicationthatyoumayneedtorepeatorrestructurebasicelementsofyourresearch.PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 118PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIonInalldecisionsyoumakeaboutrevisingthecontentofyourpaperyoushouldcarefullyweighyouroptionswithafocusonwhatisbestforyouandyourworkaswellasforthejournalinwhichyoudliketoseeyourpaperpublished.Seekingknowledgeableadviceisvitalandgivingyourselfenoughtimetodigestthecriticismofferedbytheeditorandorreviewersaswellastoconductacarefulobjectivereviewofyourworkisessential.IfyoudecidetoreviseinordertoresolvetheproblemsidentifiedintheletteryoureceivedandresubmittothesamejournalyoucanreplytotheeditorusingtheapproachesIveoutlinedinthesectiononformattingstructureandreferencingabove7.3.1.Explaininyourinitialreplythatyouveconsideredthecriticismofferedanddescribehowyoureplanningtorevisethecontentofyourpapertoresolvetheproblemsidentified.Thismaywellinvolveexplainingwhatyoucantchangeaswellaswhatyoucansobesuretoclarifyandjustifyyourreasoningregardinganynoncompliancewiththejournalsrequestsrememberingthatyouneedtoconvincetheeditorandorreviewerswhyyourviewonthesepointsisavalidone.Ifyouearnaconditionalacceptanceorreconsiderationyouwanttobesurethatitsbeengivenonthebasisofwhatyouactuallycandotomeetthejournalsneedswhilemaintainingtheintegrityofyourresearch.Thatwaywhenyouresubmityourpaperthechangesyouvemadeandexplainedagaininyournewcoveringletterwillbeexpectedandanindicationofyourabilitytoworkeffectivelywiththejournaltoachievepublicationratherthananunwantedsurprise.Persistencecanreaprewardsandisanecessaryskillforanacademicorscientistoranyotherauthorwhowishestopublishhisorherwritingbutjustastherearetimeswhenaparticularpublishingvenuesuchasanacademicorscientificjournalhastobepassedoverinplacingyourworkappropriatelysotherearepapersthatmayneedtobeabandonedorperhapscompletely 119PARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon6JohnLeinenwebertrans.LettersofSaintAugustineTarrytownNYTriumphBooks1992148reconceivedandrewritten.Apaperinwhichtheeditorandperhapsthereviewersofareputabletop-tierjournalhasfoundsignificantflawsisagoodcandidateforsuchtreatment.Eventhishoweverisaformofprogressandcanbeseeninapositivelight.Thatsamecreativewritingteacherwhoinsistedontheprimaryimportanceofperspectivealwaysurgedhisstudentstomoveontothenextprojectbecauseasheassertedanauthortendstokeepwritingthesamestoryagainandagaininvariousformsandonlybymovingontothenextmanifestationwillheorsheevergetthatstoryclosetoright.OnaloftiernoteAugustineofHippoamasterofeloquenceandpillaroftheWesternphilosophicaltraditionconfessedinaletterthatheendeavouredtobeoneofthoseauthorswhowriteastheymakeprogressandmakeprogressbytheirwritingandthushewelcomedcriticismifIsetdownsomethingwithinsufficientforethoughtorknowledgeitdeservestobecondemnednotonlybythosewhoseeitbutevenbyme.6Giventhatabout5000000ofAugustineswordsstillsurviveforustodayandthathisnumeroustextshaveinspiredlivelydebateandprofoundlyinfluencedauthorsscholarsandleadersfornearly2000yearshemayhaveavalidpoint.Sothegoldtobeminedhereisfocusonyourintellectualprogressandkeepwriting PRSTipWedlovetokeepproofreadingwhatyourewriting.Ifyouoryourcolleaguesorstudentsareinterestedinourserviceandwouldlikemoreinformationpleasevisitourwebsiteatwww.proof-reading-services.orgThePRSteamismorethanhappytoanswerquestionsandprovideanyhelpyoumayneed24hoursadayfromMondaytoFriday.Youcanreachusbyemailatenquiriesproof-reading-services.orgorviathefollowingphonenumbers44020315004311202534-39258860919354605PleaserememberthatyoucanpayforourservicesviaPaypalorSagepayandprintanddownloadinvoicesandreceiptsthroughourpaymentportal.Whenyousendusadocumentforproofreadingwellsendyouthelogindetailswithyourconfirmationemail.Wehopetohearfromyousoon120PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityPARtIIIcommUnIcAtIngwItHJoURnAledItoRssUBmIssIonAccePtAnceRevIsIonAndReJectIon 121PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityEachlettertoaneditorisuniquesothefollowinglettersareonlyexamplesbuttheywillprovideyouwithideasabouthowtoformatandwordyourownrepliestoacademicandscientificeditors.Thelettersarecompletelyfictionalwithinventednamesandsituations.ThecompleteaddressesmaynotbenecessaryifyourecommunicatingwithaneditorviaemailasissooftenthecasethesedaysbutIveincludedthemtoshowthelayoutofaformalletter.Foryourownmailingaddressitwouldbebesttouseuniversityordepartmentletterheadifavailableandprovideyourpersonalnamephonenumberandemailaddressbeneaththeletterhead.ThefirstletterA.1positsthattheeditorisinterestedinthearticleandthinksitappropriateforthejournalbuthaspointedoutanumberofproblemswiththeformattingstructureandreferencingstyleofthepaperasthereasonfornotacceptingit.Whetherornotthepaperwillbereconsideredoracceptedifthenecessaryrevisionsaredoneremainsuncertainsotheletteraimstoconfirmthatthepaperwillbeseriouslyreconsideredandideallyacceptedifthenecessarychangesaremade.Itdoesthisbythankingtheeditorforhishelpfuladviceindicatingthattheauthorunderstandstheproblemsandisintheprocessofcorrectingthemandaskingwhethertheeditorwouldliketoreconsiderthepaperforpublication.AssumingthatthefirstletterreceivedapositiveresponsethesecondletterA.2isdesignedtoaccompanytherevisedpaperonceallthenecessarychangestoformattingstructureandreferencinghavebeenmade.Itexplainsexactlywhatsbeendonetocorrecttheproblemsaddressingalloftheconcernsabouttheformatstructureandreferencesraisedbytheeditor.Italsoexplainsonechangethatmayproveproblematicandoffersanalternativesolution.Finallyitverifiesthataprofessionalproofreaderhascheckedthearticleandindicatesawillingnessonthepartoftheauthortomakeanyfurtherchangesthatmaybenecessarytofacilitatesuccessfulpublication.APPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRs 122PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityDrSandraJonesDepartmentofSocialSciencesUniversityofthePacificCoastP.O.Box101SalmonCoveBritishColumbiaV2K3L4Canada609741-8955sandra.jonesunivpaccoast.caMrReginaldSmithEditorJournalofChangingWeatherP.O.Box707RiverRapidsOregon76545USA972861-9805smith.editorjchangweath.comMarch32014DearMrSmithThankyouforyourletterregardingmymanuscriptentitledEffectofChangingWeatherPatternsonHomeInsurancePoliciesClientsLeftOutintheColdImdelightedthatyoureinterestedinthepaperandthinkitmightbeappropriatefortheJournalofChangingWeather.APPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRslrA.1earigrcfirigsriuRirairciiaApacikhrahwrvriflrA1 123PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAPPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRsIverymuchappreciatethetimeandeffortyouveputintoyourcomments.Youradviceabouttheformattingstructureandreferencingstyleofmypaperismosthelpful.IvelookedovertheJournalofChangingWeatherauthorguidelinesagainandseeexactlywhereIvegonewrongandwhatchangesneedtobemade.OnceIvemadethenecessaryrevisionsIplantohavethepaperprofessionallyproofreadtoensurethatIvemetalltherequirementsconsistently.HoweverIremainunsureaboutwhetheryourewillingtoreconsiderthearticleoncethenecessarychangeshavebeenmadesoImhopingyoucanconfirmthatyoudlikemetosendyoutherevisedpaperforreconsiderationorpublication.Ivebegunworkingontherevisionsalreadyandwillbeabletoreturnthearticletoyouwithinacoupleofweeks.WiththanksforyourtimeandassistancesignhereforaformalletterSandraJones 124PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAPPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRsDrSandraJonesDepartmentofSocialSciencesUniversityofthePacificCoastP.O.Box101SalmonCoveBritishColumbiaV2K3L4Canada609741-8955sandra.jonesunivpaccoast.caMrReginaldSmithEditorJournalofChangingWeatherP.O.Box707RiverRapidsOregon76545USA972861-9805smith.editorjchangweath.comMarch152014DearMrSmithFurthertoourcorrespondenceacoupleofweeksagoImattachingtherevisedversionofmyarticleentitledEffectofChangingWeatherPatternsonHomeInsurancePoliciesClientsLeftOutintheColdIhavenowcompletedallofthechangesyourequestedlrA.2RubiigaPaprafrnaryRviiHavBmacikhrahwrvriflrA2 125PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAPPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRsThenumericalstyleofin-textreferencinghasbeenchangedtoauthor-datereferencinginAPAstyle.ThelistofreferenceshasbeenarrangedalphabeticallybythelastnamesofauthorsinsteadofnumericallyandotherchangestoconformtoAPAstylehavebeenmadetothereferences.ThearticlehasbeenrestructuredtoincludeseparateLimitationsandConclusionssections.AllheadingsandsubheadingshavebeenadjustedtoconformtotherequirementsindicatedintheJournalofChangingWeatherauthorguidelinesincludingtheremovalofnumbers.Allnonstandardabbreviationsandacronymsusedinthepaperhavebeendefinedonfirstuseandusedconsistentlythereafter.Abbreviationsusedineachtablehavebeendefinedinanoteatthebottomofthetable.Theverticalruleslineshavebeenremovedfromallthreetables.Thetablesarenowattachedasaseparatefileinsteadofembeddedinthepaper.IshouldmentionhoweverthatTable3seemsalittlecrowdedwithouttheverticallinesseparatingtheinformationinthecolumnsandImconcernedthatthepresentationmaynotbeasclearasitwaswiththelines.IseethattheguidelinesindicatethattablesshouldbeonaverticalportraitpagebutI 126PRSProofreadingandEditingServicePhDExpertsAllAcademicAreasFastTurnaroundHighQualityAPPendIxsAmPleResPonsestoletteRsFRomAcAdemIcAndscIentIFIcedItoRsalsonoticethatafewarticlesintheprintedversionoftheJournalofChangingWeatherfeaturetablesonahorizontallandscapepagesoperhapsthatwouldbeagoodlayoutforincreasingtheclarityofTable3.Imcertainlyopentoanysuggestionsyouhaveforthistable.ImalsoattachingacertificatefromProof-Reading-Services.orgverifyingthatthearticlehasbeenprofessionallyproofreadwithspecialattentiontomeetingtheJournalofChangingWeatherauthorguidelinesforformattingstructureandreferencing.IhopethatthechangesIvemaderesolveallyourconcernsaboutthearticle.Immorethanhappytomakeanyfurtherchangesthatwillimprovethepaperandorfacilitatesuccessfulpublication.Thankyouonceagainforyourtimeandinterest.Ilookforwardtohearingfromyou.SincerelysignhereforaformalletterSandraJones ABoUttHIsgUIdeWrittenbyanacademicauthoreditorandproofreaderthisGuidetoAcademicandScientificPublicationprovidespracticaladviceonplanningpreparingandsubmittingarticlesforpublicationinscholarlyjournals.WhetheryourelookingforinformationondesigninganacademicorscientificarticleconstructingascholarlyargumenttargetingtherightjournalfollowingjournalguidelineswithprecisionprovidingaccurateandcompletereferenceswritingelegantscholarlyEnglishcommunicatingwithjournaleditorsorrevisingyourpaperinlightofthatcommunicationyoullfindguidancetipsandexamplesinthismanual.FocussingonsoundscholarlypracticesaswellastheexpectationsandrequirementsofacademicandscientificjournalsthisGuideissuitableforuseinawidevarietyofdisciplinesincludingtheSocialPhysicalandBiologicalSciencestheHumanitiesMedicineEngineeringMathematicsEconomicsLawandManagement.2014